Purpose To evaluate the prevalence of drug-drug interactions (DDI) in hospitalized patients and to identify associated risk factors. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional analysis of prescription data and medical records from a public hospital in Brazil was conducted to identify potential DDI. Inappropriate drug combinations were identified and classified with a standard drug interaction source. Primary diagnoses were classified with Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). Sex, age, polypharmacy and length of stay, among other variables, were correlated with the frequency of potential DDI. Results The study included 589 patients and 3,585 prescriptions. Thirty-seven percent of the patients were exposed to at least one potential interaction during their stay in the hospital. The most frequent interacting pair was Digoxin+Furosemide (11%). In univariate analysis, several variables were associated with DDI, including sex, age, number of prescribed drugs, length and cost of hospitalization and CCI. Multivariate analysis showed that the adjusted odds of being prescribed a potential DDI among patients in polypharmacy was almost five-fold that of patients taking fewer than five drugs. Further, length of stay, CCI and cost of hospitalization were independently associated with DDI. Conclusion Analysis of prescription data found that a substantial number of potential DDI were identified. Results of this study indicate that DDI is associated with number of prescribed drugs, increased duration of stay in the hospital and cost, which suggests that DDI are a significant clinical and economic problem. Potential harm to patients could be avoided. _______________________________________________________________________________________
The phenomenon of judicialization of health in Brazil can point out failures in the public health system as some medicines demanded are included in its lists. However, it is a barrier for rational drug use and application of the National Drug Policy guidelines, especially when there are demanded medicines with no evidence of efficacy and that are not included in Brazilian Health System standards.
Are new models needed to optimise the utilisation of new medicines to sustain healthcare systems?Godman B 1,2,3 , Malmström RE 4 , Diogene E 5 , Gray A 6 , Jayathissa S 7 , Timoney A 8 , Acurcio FA 9,10 , Alkan A 11 , Brzezinska A 12 , Bucsics A 13 , Campbell S 14,15 AbstractIntroduction: Medicines have made an appreciable contribution to improving health. However, even high income countries are struggling to fund new premium-priced medicines. This will grow necessitating the development of new models to optimise their use. Objective: Review case histories among health authorities to improve the utilisation and expenditure on new medicines. Subsequently, use these to develop exemplar models and outline their implications. Challenges and proposed models: A number of issues and challenges have been identified including the limited innovation level of new medicines alongside increasing requested prices for their reimbursement especially for oncology, orphan diseases, diabetes and HCV. Models centre on the three pillars of pre-, peri, and post-launch including critical drug evaluation and multi-criteria models for valuing medicines for orphan diseases alongside potentially capping pharmaceutical expenditure Discussion: Proposed models which involve all key stakeholder groups are critical for the sustainability of healthcare systems or enhancing universal access. The models should help stimulate debate as well as restore trust between key stakeholder groups.
The current analysis has pointed out the importance of clinical and health service characteristics as potential indicators of non-adherence after initiating therapy. Early assessment and intervention strategies should be priorities in these AIDS public referral centres. Feasible and reliable indicators for the routine monitoring of adherence should be incorporated in clinical practice.
Introduction and Objective: Dengue virus is a serious global health problem with an estimated 3.97 billion people at risk for infection worldwide. In December 2015, the first vaccine (CYD-TDV) for dengue prevention was approved in Brazil, developed by Sanofi Pasteur. However, given that the vaccine will potentially be paid via the public health system, information is need regarding consumers’ willingness to pay for the dengue vaccine in the country as well as discussions related to the possible inclusion of this vaccine into the public health system. This was the objective of this research.Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study with residents of Greater Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, about their willingness to pay for the CYD-TDV vaccine.Results: 507 individuals were interviewed. These were mostly female (62.4%) had completed high school (62.17%), were working (74.4%), had private health insurance (64.5%) and did not have dengue (67.4%). The maximum median value of consumers’ willingness to pay for CYD-TDV vaccine is US$33.61 (120.00BRL) for the complete schedule and US$11.20 (40.00BRL) per dose. At the price determined by the Brazil’s regulatory chamber of pharmaceutical products market for the commercialization of Dengvaxia® for three doses, only 17% of the population expressed willingness to pay for this vaccine.Conclusion: Brazil is currently one of the largest markets for dengue vaccine and the price established is a key issue. We believe the manufacturer should asses the possibility of lower prices to reach a larger audience among the Brazilian population.
OBJECTIVE To characterize the polypharmacy in primary health care patients and to identify its associated factors.METHODS This is a cross-sectional, exploratory, and evaluative study, part of the Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos – Serviços, 2015 (PNAUM – National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines – Services, 2015). The variable of interest was polypharmacy, defined as the use of five or more medicines. We sought to identify the association of sociodemographic variables and indicators of health conditions to polypharmacy. For group comparison, the Pearson’s Chi-square test was used. The association between polypharmacy and explanatory variables was evaluated by logistic regression model (p < 0.05). The quality of the adjustment was verified by Hosmer-Lemeshow test.RESULTS The prevalence of polypharmacy among medicine users was 9.4% (95%CI 7.8–12.0) in the general population and 18.1% (95%CI 13.6–22.8) in older adults above 65 years old. We found statistically significant association between polypharmacy and age above 45 years, lower self-perception of health, presence of chronic diseases, having health insurance, care in emergency services, and region of the Country. South users presented the highest chances to polypharmacy. The most used medicines were those of the cardiovascular system, being compatible with the national epidemiological profile.CONCLUSIONS Polypharmacy is a reality in the population met within the primary care of Brazilian Unified Health System and may be related to excessive or inappropriate use of medicines. The main challenge to qualify health care is to ensure that prescription of multiple medicines be appropriate and safe.
O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar fatores associados ao uso de medicamentos por idosos. Foi realizado um inquérito postal nacional, com 3 mil idosos, selecionados com base no cadastro do Instituto Nacional do Seguro Social. Foram estimadas a prevalência e a média de medicamentos utilizados nos 15 dias anteriores à pesquisa, segundo faixas etárias. A prevalência de uso de medicamentos foi de 83%, sendo de 87,3% no grupo de 70 anos ou mais, e de 78,8% no de 60-69 anos (p < 0,05). Os idosos com 70 anos ou mais usaram em média 4,4 medicamentos, os mais jovens 3,3. Os medicamentos mais utilizados pertenciam ao sistema cardiovascular. Idade de 70 ou mais anos, sexo feminino, pior percepção de saúde, interrupção de atividades habituais, mais de 6 consultas médicas no último ano, filiação a plano de saúde e relato de 4 ou mais doenças estavam associados ao uso de medicamentos (p < 0,05) entre os participantes. Os resultados ampliam o conhecimento a respeito da utilização de medicamentos pelos idosos brasileiros, evidenciando a necessidade de aprimoramento da assistência farmacêutica voltada para esse subgrupo da população.
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