Highlights d Influenza alters the production of SCFAs by the gut microbiota d The dysbiotic microbiota transfers susceptibility to respiratory bacterial infection d Supplementation with acetate restores the killing activity of alveolar macrophages d Activation of the SCFA receptor FFAR2 protects against bacterial superinfection
The phenomenon of judicialization of health in Brazil can point out failures in the public health system as some medicines demanded are included in its lists. However, it is a barrier for rational drug use and application of the National Drug Policy guidelines, especially when there are demanded medicines with no evidence of efficacy and that are not included in Brazilian Health System standards.
Bacteria that colonize the human gastrointestinal tract are essential for good health. The gut microbiota has a critical role in pulmonary immunity and host’s defense against viral respiratory infections. The gut microbiota’s composition and function can be profoundly affected in many disease settings, including acute infections, and these changes can aggravate the severity of the disease. Here, we discuss mechanisms by which the gut microbiota arms the lung to control viral respiratory infections. We summarize the impact of viral respiratory infections on the gut microbiota and discuss the potential mechanisms leading to alterations of gut microbiota’s composition and functions. We also discuss the effects of gut microbial imbalance on disease outcomes, including gastrointestinal disorders and secondary bacterial infections. Lastly, we discuss the potential role of the lung–gut axis in coronavirus disease 2019.
Biological agents directed against tumor necrosis factor (TNF) represent therapeutic options for patients with ankylosing spondylitis with high disease activity despite use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the anti-TNF agents infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, golimumab, and certolizumab for the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis, we performed a systematic review of randomized clinical trials on adult patients with ankylosing spondylitis using articles culled from the EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register and LILACS databases (September/2012), manual literature search, and the gray literature. Study selections and data collection were performed by two independent reviewers, with disagreements solved by a third reviewer. The following outcomes were evaluated: ASAS 20 response, disease activity, physical function, vertebral mobility, adverse events, and withdraws. The meta-analysis was performed using the Review Manager(®) 5.1 software by applying the random effects model. Eighteen studies were included in this review. No study of certolizumab was included. Patients treated with anti-TNF agents were more likely to display an ASAS 20 response after 12/14 weeks (RR 2.21; 95 % CI 1.91; 2.56) and 24 weeks (RR 2.68; 95 % CI 2.06; 3.48) compared with controls, which was also true for several other efficacy outcomes. Meta-analysis of safety outcomes and withdraws did not indicate statistically significant differences between treatment and control groups after 12 or 30 weeks. Adalimumab, infliximab, etanercept, and golimumab can effectively reduce the signs and symptoms of the axial component of ankylosing spondylitis. Safety outcomes deserve further study, especially with respect to long-term follow-ups.
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of community-acquired pneumonia leading to high mortality rates. Inflammation triggered by pneumococcal infection is necessary for bacterial clearance but must be spatially and temporally regulated to prevent further tissue damage and bacterial dissemination. Annexin A1 (AnxA1) mainly acts through Formyl Peptide Receptor 2 (FPR2) inducing the resolution of inflammation. Here, we have evaluated the role of AnxA1 and FPR2 during pneumococcal pneumonia in mice. For that, AnxA1, Fpr2/3 knockout (KO) mice and wild-type (WT) controls were infected intranasally with S pneumoniae. AnxA1 and Fpr2/3 KO mice were highly susceptible to infection, displaying uncontrolled inflammation, increased bacterial dissemination, and pulmonary dysfunction compared to WT animals. Mechanistically, the absence of AnxA1 resulted in the loss of lung barrier integrity and increased neutrophil activation upon S pneumoniae stimulation.Importantly, treatment of WT or AnxA1 KO-infected mice with Ac2-26 decreased inflammation, lung damage, and bacterial burden in the airways by increasing 2750 | MACHADO et Al.
OBJECTIVE: To describe the relationship between the prescribing physician, lawyer and pharmaceutical industry in lawsuits against the state. METHODS:Retrospective descriptive study based on data from administrative fi les, relating to lawsuits involving medicine demands, in the State of Minas Gerais, from October 1999 to October 2009. The variables studied were: gender, age, benefi ciaries' illness, type of medical care (public or private), prescriber, type of legal representation and requested medication. A descriptive analysis of the variables with the distribution of frequencies was carried out. RESULTS:A total of 2,412 lawsuits were analyzed with 2,880 medicine requests, including 18 different drugs, 12 of them provided through Pharmaceutical Policies of the Brazilian National Health System (SUS). The most frequent medicines requested were adalimumab, etanercept, infl iximab, insulin glargine and tiotropium bromide. The main diseases were rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, diabetes mellitus and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Private lawyers and doctors were predominant. The results revealed the association between doctors and law offi ces on drug requests. Among the lawsuits fi led by the offi ce A, 43.6% had a single prescriber of adalimumab, while 29 doctors were responsible for 40.2% of the same drug prescriptions. A single doctor was responsible for 16.5% of the adalimumab prescriptions, being requested through lawsuits fi led by a single private law offi ce in 44.8% of legal proceedings. CONCLUSIONS:A greater representation of doctors and lawyers from the private sector can hinder equity in health. The results revealed the association between doctors and law offi ces on drug requests. This is an indication that justice and medical practice have been used, at certain times, to serve the interests of the pharmaceutical industry. DESCRIPTORS:Health lawsuits and access to health . Equity in health. Pharmaceutical industry. Incorporation of medicines. Lawsuit offi cials. Doctors.
RationaleInfluenza A infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide especially when associated with secondary pneumococcal infections. Inflammation is important to control pathogen proliferation but may also cause tissue injury and death. CXCR1/2 are chemokine receptors relevant for the recruitment of neutrophils. We investigated the role of CXCR1/2 during influenza, pneumococcal, and post-influenza pneumococcal infections.MethodsMice were infected with influenza A virus (IAV) or Streptococcus pneumoniae and then treated daily with the CXCR1/2 antagonist DF2162. To study secondary pneumococcal infection, mice were infected with a sublethal inoculum of IAV then infected with S. pneumoniae 14 days later. DF2162 was given in a therapeutic schedule from days 3 to 6 after influenza infection. Lethality, weight loss, inflammation, virus/bacteria counts, and lung injury were assessed.ResultsCXCL1 and CXCL2 were produced at high levels during IAV infection. DF2162 treatment decreased morbidity and this was associated with decreased infiltration of neutrophils in the lungs and reduced pulmonary damage and viral titers. During S. pneumoniae infection, DF2162 treatment decreased neutrophil recruitment, pulmonary damage, and lethality rates, without affecting bacteria burden. Therapeutic treatment with DF2162 during sublethal IAV infection reduced the morbidity associated with virus infection and also decreased the magnitude of inflammation, lung damage, and number of bacteria in the blood of mice subsequently infected with S. pneumoniae.ConclusionModulation of the inflammatory response by blocking CXCR1/2 improves disease outcome during respiratory influenza and pneumococcal infections, without compromising the ability of the murine host to deal with infection. Altogether, inhibition of CXCR1/2 may be a valid therapeutic strategy for treating lung infections caused by these pathogens, especially controlling secondary bacterial infection after influenza.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate treatment persistence in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis who started therapies with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD) and tumor necrosis factor blockers (anti-TNF drugs).METHODS This retrospective cohort study from July 2008 to September 2013 evaluated therapy persistence, which is defined as the period between the start of treatment until it is discontinued, allowing for an interval of up to 30 days between the prescription end and the start of the next prescription. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated by logistic regression models to estimate the patients’ chances of persisting in their therapies after the first and after the two first years of follow-up.RESULTS The study included 11,642 patients with rheumatoid arthritis – 2,241 of these started on anti-TNF drugs (+/-DMARD) and 9,401 patients started on DMARD – and 1,251 patients with ankylosing spondylitis – 976 of them were started on anti-TNF drugs (+/-DMARD) and 275 were started on DMARD. In the first year of follow-up, 63.5% of the patients persisted in their therapies with anti-TNF drugs (+/-DMARD) and 54.1% remained using DMARD in the group with rheumatoid arthritis. In regards to ankylosing spondylitis, 79.0% of the subjects in anti-TNF (+/-DMARD) group and 41.1% of the subjects in the DMARD group persisted with their treatments. The OR (95%CI) for therapy persistence was 1.50 (1.34-1.67) for the anti-TNF (+/-DMARD) group as compared with the DMARD group in the first year for the patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and 2.33 (1.74-3.11) for the patients with ankylosing spondylitis. A similar trend was observed at the end of the second year.CONCLUSIONS A general trend of higher rates of therapy persistence with anti-TNF drugs (+/-DMARD) was observed as compared to DMARD in the study period. We observed higher persistence rates for anti-TNF drugs (+/-DMARD) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis as compared to rheumatoid arthritis; and a higher persistence for DMARD in patients with rheumatoid arthritis as compared to ankylosing spondylitis.
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