Candida tropicalis has been associated with invasive candidiasis, being the first or second most common non-Candida albicans Candida species isolated in humans with candidemia and candiduria, as well as being frequently isolated from healthy animals. This study aimed to characterize C. tropicalis isolates (n = 64) obtained from several animal species regarding antifungal susceptibility and production of virulence factors. The isolates were obtained from the microbiota of healthy animals (goats, n = 25; sheep, n = 6; psittacines, n = 14; rheas, n = 6; horses, n = 2; sirenians, n = 5; shrimp, n = 1), as well as from aquatic mammals found dead in the environment (cetaceans, n = 5). The isolates were subjected to in vitro susceptibility testing by broth microdilution according to the CLSI M27-A3 protocol against amphotericin B, caspofungin, itraconazole, and fluconazole. We also evaluated the virulence attributes, such as proteases and phospholipases, as well as biofilm formation. Resistance to itraconazole (n = 29) and fluconazole (n = 30) was detected among isolates from every source; resistance to both azoles was detected in 24 isolates, but none of them were resistant to amphotericin B and caspofungin. Protease production was detected in the majority of the isolates (n = 59), but phospholipase was produced by only a few of them (n = 6). The isolates showed different patterns in biofilm production, being considered strong producers (n = 41), moderate producers (n = 11), weak producers (n = 9) or non-producers (n = 3). In summary, C. tropicalis isolated from animals showed high rate of resistance to azoles, expressed virulence factors and therefore may represent a potential threat to human and animal health.
Heat-shock proteins (Hsps) are chaperones required for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis in different fungal pathogens, playing an important role in the infectious process. This study investigated the effect of pharmacological inhibition of Hsp90 by radicicol on the Cryptococcus neoformans/Cryptococcus gattii species complex -agents of the most common life-threatening fungal infection amongst immunocompromised patients. The influence of Hsp90 inhibition was investigated regarding in vitro susceptibility to antifungal agents of planktonic and sessile cells, ergosterol concentration, cell membrane integrity, growth at 37 8C, production of virulence factors in vitro, and experimental infection in Caenorhabditis elegans. Hsp90 inhibition inhibited the in vitro growth of planktonic cells of Cryptococcus spp. at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 2 mg ml 21 and increased the in vitro inhibitory effect of azoles, especially fluconazole (FLC) (P,0.05). Inhibition of Hsp90 also increased the antifungal activity of azoles against biofilm formation and mature biofilms of Cryptococcus spp., notably for Cryptococcus gattii. Furthermore, Hsp90 inhibition compromised the permeability of the cell membrane, and reduced planktonic growth at 37 8C and the capsular size of Cryptococcus spp. In addition, Hsp90 inhibition enhanced the antifungal activity of FLC during experimental infection using Caenorhabditis elegans. Therefore, our results indicate that Hsp90 inhibition can be an important strategy in the development of new antifungal drugs.
Miltefosine (MIL), originally developed for use in cancer chemotherapy, has been shown to have important antifungal activity against several pathogenic fungi. Our aim in this study was to determine the in vitro activity of MIL against the dimorphic fungi Histoplasma capsulatum and Sporothrix spp. This was done using the broth microdilution method. MIL had an in vitro inhibitory effect against all strains of H. capsulatum var. capsulatum and Sporothrix spp. analyzed. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) varied from 0.25 μg/ml to 2 μg/ml for H. capsulatum var. capsulatum in the filamentous phase and from 0.125 μg/ml to 1 μg/ml in the yeast phase. The MIC interval for Sporothrix spp. in the filamentous phase was 0.25-2 μg/ml. The minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) were ≤4 μg/ml for isolates of both analyzed species. This study demonstrates that MIL has an antifungal effect in vitro against two potentially pathogenic fungi and that more studies should be performed in order to evaluate its applicability in vivo.
To analyze the eco-epidemiologic aspects of Histoplasma capsulatum in Brazil, we tested 83 bats for this fungus. Although H. capsulatum was not isolated, Coccidioides posadasii was recovered from Carollia perspicillata bat lungs. Immunologic studies detected coccidioidal antibodies and antigens in Glossophaga soricina and Desmodus rotundus bats.
f Histoplasmosis is a severe infection that affects millions of patients worldwide and is endemic in the Americas. Amphotericin B (AMB) and itraconazole are highly effective for the treatment of severe and milder forms of the disease, but AMB is toxic, and the bioavailability of itraconazole is erratic. Therefore, it is important to investigate new classes of drugs for histoplasmosis treatment. In this study, a series of nine isoniazid hydrazone derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their antifungal activities in vitro against the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum. The drugs were tested by microdilution in accordance with CLSI guidelines. The compound N=-(1-phenylethylidene)isonicotinohydrazide had the lowest MIC range of all the compounds for the yeast and filamentous forms of H. capsulatum. The in vitro synergy of this compound with AMB against the planktonic and biofilm forms of H. capsulatum cells was assessed by the checkerboard method. The effects of this hydrazone on cellular ergosterol content and membrane integrity were also investigated. The study showed that the compound alone is able to reduce the ergosterol content of planktonic cells and can alter the membrane permeability of the fungus. Furthermore, the compound alone or in combination with AMB showed inhibitory effects against mature biofilms of H. capsulatum. N=-(1-Phenylethylidene)isonicotinohydrazide alone or combined with AMB might be of interest in the management of histoplasmosis.
This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of terpinen-4-ol, tyrosol, and β-lapachone against strains of Coccidioides posadasii in filamentous phase (n = 22) and Histoplasma capsulatum in both filamentous (n = 40) and yeast phases (n = 13), using the broth dilution methods as described by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of these compounds. The mechanisms of action of these compounds were also investigated by analyzing their effect on cell membrane permeability and ergosterol synthesis. The MIC and MFCf these compounds against C. posadasii, mycelial H. capsulatum, and yeast-like H. capsulatum, were in the following ranges: 350–5720 μg/mL, 20–2860 μg/mL, and 40–1420 μg/mL, respectively for terpinen-4-ol; 250–4000 μg/mL, 30–2000 μg/mL, and 10–1000 μg/mL, respectively, for tyrosol; and 0.48–7.8 μg/mL, 0.25–16 μg/mL, and 0.125–4 μg/mL, respectively for β-lapachone. These compounds showed a decrease in MIC when the samples were subjected to osmotic stress, suggesting that the compounds acted on the fungal membrane. All the compounds were able to reduce the ergosterol content of the fungal strains. Finally, tyrosol was able to cause a leakage of intracellular molecules.
Candida parapsilosis complex comprises three closely related species, C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida metapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis. In the last decade, antifungal resistance to azoles and caspofungin among C. parapsilosis sensu lato strains has been considered a matter of concern worldwide. In the present study, we evaluated the synergistic potential of antifungals and the calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporin A (Cys) against planktonic and biofilms of C. parapsilosis complex from clinical sources. Susceptibility assays with amphotericin, fluconazole, voriconazole, caspofungin and Cys were performed by microdilution in accordance with Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Synergy testing against planktonic cells of C. parapsilosis sensu lato strains was assessed by the chequerboard method. Combinations formed by antifungals with Cys were evaluated against mature biofilms in microtitre plates. No differences in the antifungal susceptibility pattern among species were observed, but C. parapsilosis sensu stricto strains were more susceptible to Cys than C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. Synergism between antifungals and Cys was observed in C. parapsilosis sensu lato strains. Combinations formed by antifungals and Cys were able to prevent biofilm formation and showed an inhibitory effect against mature biofilms of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, C. metapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis. These results strengthen the potential of calcineurin inhibition as a promising approach to enhance the efficiency of antifungal drugs.
It is believed that most microbial infections are caused by pathogens organized in biofilms. Recently, it was shown that the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum, estimated to be the most common cause of fungal respiratory diseases, is also able to form biofilm. Although the antifungal therapy commonly used is effective, refractory cases and recurrences have been reported. In the search for new compounds with antimicrobial activity, the sesquiterpene farnesol has gained prominence for its antifungal action. This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro susceptibility of H. capsulatum var. capsulatum to the antifungal agents itraconazole and amphotericin B, and farnesol alone and combined, as well as to determine the in vitro antifungal activity of these compounds against biofilms of this pathogen. The results show that farnesol has antifungal activity against H. capsulatum in the yeast and filamentous phases, with MIC values ranging from 0.0078 to 0.00312 mM. A synergistic effect (fractional inhibitory concentration index ¡0.5) between itraconazole and farnesol was found against 100 and 83.3 % of the isolates in yeast and mycelial forms, respectively, while synergism between amphotericin B and farnesol was only observed against 37.5 and 44.4 % of the isolates in yeast and filamentous forms, respectively. Afterwards, the antifungal drugs, itraconazole and amphotericin B, and farnesol alone, and the combination of itraconazole and farnesol, were tested against mature biofilms of H. capsulatum, through XTT (2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-5-[(phenylamino)carbonyl]-2H-tetrazolium hydroxide) metabolic assay, and the itraconazole and amphotericin B showed lower antibiofilm activity when compared to farnesol alone and farnesol combined with itraconazole. In conclusion, farnesol showed promising results as an antifungal agent against H. capsulatum and also showed adjuvant action, especially when combined with itraconazole, increasing the fungal susceptibility to this drug.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2024 scite LLC. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers
Part of the Research Solutions Family.