Candida tropicalis has been associated with invasive candidiasis, being the first or second most common non-Candida albicans Candida species isolated in humans with candidemia and candiduria, as well as being frequently isolated from healthy animals. This study aimed to characterize C. tropicalis isolates (n = 64) obtained from several animal species regarding antifungal susceptibility and production of virulence factors. The isolates were obtained from the microbiota of healthy animals (goats, n = 25; sheep, n = 6; psittacines, n = 14; rheas, n = 6; horses, n = 2; sirenians, n = 5; shrimp, n = 1), as well as from aquatic mammals found dead in the environment (cetaceans, n = 5). The isolates were subjected to in vitro susceptibility testing by broth microdilution according to the CLSI M27-A3 protocol against amphotericin B, caspofungin, itraconazole, and fluconazole. We also evaluated the virulence attributes, such as proteases and phospholipases, as well as biofilm formation. Resistance to itraconazole (n = 29) and fluconazole (n = 30) was detected among isolates from every source; resistance to both azoles was detected in 24 isolates, but none of them were resistant to amphotericin B and caspofungin. Protease production was detected in the majority of the isolates (n = 59), but phospholipase was produced by only a few of them (n = 6). The isolates showed different patterns in biofilm production, being considered strong producers (n = 41), moderate producers (n = 11), weak producers (n = 9) or non-producers (n = 3). In summary, C. tropicalis isolated from animals showed high rate of resistance to azoles, expressed virulence factors and therefore may represent a potential threat to human and animal health.
There is growing interest in breeding rheas (Rhea americana) in Brazil. However, there are no data on the yeast microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract of this avian species, and the phenotypic characteristics of these yeasts are not known. Therefore, the aim of this work was to isolate Candida species from the digestive tract of rheas and to evaluate the in vitro antifungal susceptibility and secretion of phospholipases of the recovered isolates. For this purpose, 58 rheas from breeding operations in the cities of Fortaleza and Mossoró , north-eastern Brazil, were used. Samples were gathered from the oropharynx and cloaca of the animals using sterile swabs. Stool samples were collected from their pens by scraping with a scalpel blade. For the primary isolation, the material was seeded onto 2 % Sabouraud dextrose agar supplemented with chloramphenicol (0.5 g l "1
This study investigated potential mechanisms of azole resistance among Candida albicans from animals, including efflux pump activity, ergosterol content and gene expression. For this purpose, 30 azole-resistant C. albicans strains from animals were tested for their antifungal susceptibility, according to document M27-A3, efflux pump activity by rhodamine 6G test, ergosterol content and expression of the genes CDR1, CDR2, MDR1, ERG11 by RT-qPCR. These strains were resistant to at least one azole derivative. Resistance to fluconazole and itraconazole was detected in 23 and 26 strains respectively. Rhodamine 6G tests showed increased activity of efflux pumps in the resistant strains, showing a possible resistance mechanism. There was no difference in ergosterol content between resistant and susceptible strains, even after fluconazole exposure. From 30 strains, 22 (73.3%) resistant animal strains overexpressed one or more genes. From this group, 40.9% (9/22) overexpressed CDR1, 18.2% (4/22) overexpressed CDR2, 59.1% (13/22) overexpressed MDR1 and 54.5% (12/22) overexpressed ERG11. Concerning gene expression, a positive correlation was observed only between CDR1 and CDR2. Thus, azole resistance in C. albicans strains from animals is a multifactorial process that involves increased efflux pump activity and the overexpression of different genes.
To analyze the eco-epidemiologic aspects of Histoplasma capsulatum in Brazil, we tested 83 bats for this fungus. Although H. capsulatum was not isolated, Coccidioides posadasii was recovered from Carollia perspicillata bat lungs. Immunologic studies detected coccidioidal antibodies and antigens in Glossophaga soricina and Desmodus rotundus bats.
f Histoplasmosis is a severe infection that affects millions of patients worldwide and is endemic in the Americas. Amphotericin B (AMB) and itraconazole are highly effective for the treatment of severe and milder forms of the disease, but AMB is toxic, and the bioavailability of itraconazole is erratic. Therefore, it is important to investigate new classes of drugs for histoplasmosis treatment. In this study, a series of nine isoniazid hydrazone derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their antifungal activities in vitro against the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum. The drugs were tested by microdilution in accordance with CLSI guidelines. The compound N=-(1-phenylethylidene)isonicotinohydrazide had the lowest MIC range of all the compounds for the yeast and filamentous forms of H. capsulatum. The in vitro synergy of this compound with AMB against the planktonic and biofilm forms of H. capsulatum cells was assessed by the checkerboard method. The effects of this hydrazone on cellular ergosterol content and membrane integrity were also investigated. The study showed that the compound alone is able to reduce the ergosterol content of planktonic cells and can alter the membrane permeability of the fungus. Furthermore, the compound alone or in combination with AMB showed inhibitory effects against mature biofilms of H. capsulatum. N=-(1-Phenylethylidene)isonicotinohydrazide alone or combined with AMB might be of interest in the management of histoplasmosis.
Coccidioidomycosis is a deep-seated fungal infection that occurs exclusively in semiarid areas in the Americas. In Brazil, coccidioidomycosis occurs exclusively in rural areas in the northeast region and affects counties that are hit by recurrent droughts, poverty and economic stagnation. Since 1978, approximately 136 cases of the disease have been reported in Brazil, according to scientific publications. However, a lack of governmental epidemiological data as well as a similarity to tuberculosis have led scientists and experts to assume that a greater number of cases occur in the country, which are not diagnosed and/or reported. In this review, general characteristics of coccidioidomycosis are presented, followed by a description of the main clinical and epidemiological data of cases in Brazil. The purpose of this article is to discuss the inclusion of coccidioidomycosis in the list of neglected tropical diseases. We believe that the adoption of coccidioidomycosis as a neglected tropical disease will enable the creation of an effective epidemiological surveillance system and the development of feasible public health solutions for its control in vulnerable populations.
Candida parapsilosis complex comprises three closely related species, C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida metapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis. In the last decade, antifungal resistance to azoles and caspofungin among C. parapsilosis sensu lato strains has been considered a matter of concern worldwide. In the present study, we evaluated the synergistic potential of antifungals and the calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporin A (Cys) against planktonic and biofilms of C. parapsilosis complex from clinical sources. Susceptibility assays with amphotericin, fluconazole, voriconazole, caspofungin and Cys were performed by microdilution in accordance with Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Synergy testing against planktonic cells of C. parapsilosis sensu lato strains was assessed by the chequerboard method. Combinations formed by antifungals with Cys were evaluated against mature biofilms in microtitre plates. No differences in the antifungal susceptibility pattern among species were observed, but C. parapsilosis sensu stricto strains were more susceptible to Cys than C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. Synergism between antifungals and Cys was observed in C. parapsilosis sensu lato strains. Combinations formed by antifungals and Cys were able to prevent biofilm formation and showed an inhibitory effect against mature biofilms of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, C. metapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis. These results strengthen the potential of calcineurin inhibition as a promising approach to enhance the efficiency of antifungal drugs.
Respiratory infections are a common problem among equines and occur with variable rates of morbidity and mortality. Although some fungal species are considered primary agents of respiratory tract infections in several mammals, their relevance in respiratory diseases of equines is frequently neglected. In the present study, we performed an active search for Candida spp. in the nasal cavity of horses. The presence of Candida spp. was investigated through the use of nasal swabs that were streaked on culture media. These yeasts were identified through physiological testing and their in vitro antifungal susceptibility were also characterized. The analysis of the material from the nasal cavity of 97 randomly chosen horses resulted in the isolation of Candida spp. from 35 animals (36.08%), out of which 18 (32.14%) were C. famata, 14 (25%) C. parapsilosis, 12 (21.42%) Meyerozyma guilliermondii (C. guilliermondii), 11 (19.64%) C. tropicalis and 1 (1.78%) Wickerhamomyces anomalus (C. pelliculosa). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranged from 0.03125-1 μg/ml for amphotericin B; and from 0.03125-> 16 μg/ml and 0.125 to > 64 μg/ml for itraconazole and fluconazole, respectively. Resistance to fluconazole and itraconazole was observed among C. tropicalis (n = 3) and C. guilliermondii (n = 1). The data show a predominance of non-C. albicans Candida species in the nasal microbiota of healthy equines, including antifungal resistant isolates, reiterating the importance of monitoring fungal pathogens in these animals.
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