Soft corals are well-known as excellent sources of marine-derived natural products. Among them, members of the genera Sarcophyton, Sinularia, and Lobophytum are especially attractive targets for marine natural product research. In this review, we reported the marine-derived natural products called cembranoids isolated from soft corals, including the genera Sarcophyton, Sinularia, and Lobophytum. Here, we reviewed 72 reports published between 2016 and 2020, comprising 360 compounds, of which 260 are new compounds and 100 are previously known compounds with newly recognized activities. The novelty of the organic molecules and their relevant biological activities, delivered by the year of publication, are presented. Among the genera presented in this report, Sarcophyton spp. produce the most cembranoid diterpenes; thus, they are considered as the most important soft corals for marine natural product research. Cembranoids display diverse biological activities, including anti-cancer, anti-bacterial, and anti-inflammatory. As cembranoids have been credited with a broad range of biological activities, they present a huge potential for the development of various drugs with potential health and ecological benefits.
Chemicals that meet the criteria of a riot control agent as defined by the Chemical Weapons Convention (an international chemical disarmament and non-proliferation treaty) are reviewed by the Scientific Advisory Board of the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons.
Marine invertebrates have been reported to be an excellent resource of many novel bioactive compounds. Studies reported that Indonesia has remarkable yet underexplored marine natural products, with a high chemical diversity and a broad spectrum of biological activities. This review discusses recent updates on the exploration of marine natural products from Indonesian marine invertebrates (i.e., sponges, tunicates, and soft corals) throughout 2007–2020. This paper summarizes the structural diversity and biological function of the bioactive compounds isolated from Indonesian marine invertebrates as antimicrobial, antifungal, anticancer, and antiviral, while also presenting the opportunity for further investigation of novel compounds derived from Indonesian marine invertebrates.
Andrographispaniculata (Burm.f.) Nees has been used as a traditional medicine in Asian countries, especially China, India, Vietnam, Malaysia, and Indonesia. This herbaceous plant extract contains active compounds with multiple biological activities against various diseases, including the flu, colds, fever, diabetes, hypertension, and cancer. Several isolated compounds from A. paniculata, such as andrographolide and its analogs, have attracted much interest for their potential treatment against several virus infections, including SARS-CoV-2. The mechanisms of action in inhibiting viral infections can be categorized into several types, including regulating the viral entry stage, gene replication, and the formation of mature functional proteins. The efficacy of andrographolide as an antiviral candidate was further investigated since the phytoconstituents of A. paniculata exhibit various physicochemical characteristics, including low solubility and low bioavailability. A discussion on the delivery systems of these active compounds could accelerate their development for commercial applications as antiviral drugs. This study critically reviewed the current antiviral development based on andrographolide and its derivative compounds, especially on their mechanism of action as antiviral drugs and drug delivery systems.
Article Info AbstractAn increase in blood glucose levels in people with diabetes can cause an increase in free radicals, which can worsen the disease. Thus, drugs that have antidiabetic and antioxidant activities are needed. The cinnamon plant is high in antioxidants and has long been used as a source for a diabetes drug. The utilization of endophytic fungi isolated from cinnamon plants as antidiabetic and antioxidant has never been reported. This study aims to investigate the antidiabetic as well as antioxidant activity from the extract of endophytic fungi from the cinnamon plant. The antidiabetic activity was tested using the -glucosidase enzyme inhibition method , while antioxidant activity was tested using the DPPH free radical scavenging method. Total phenol content was measured based on the Follin-Ciocalteu reagent reaction. All endophytic fungal extracts from the cinnamon leaves, twigs, flowers, and fruit have antidiabetic and antioxidant activity as well as high total phenol content. The three parameters measured showed a positive correlation. Endophytic fungal extract of Cb.D6 isolate derived from the leaf had the highest antidiabetic and antioxidant activity among the other isolates amounting to 92.41 % and 90.28 %, respectively. In addition, the total phenol content of Cb.D6 isolates was also the highest with 357 -83 mg equivalent to gallic acid / g extract. Therefore, the endophytic fungal extract of Cb.D6 isolate has the potential to be developed as a source of the antidiabetic and antioxidant ingredients.
Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed in the world. Chemotheraphy is one of the most common methods used for the pharmacological treatment of this cancer patients. Nevertheless, the adverse effect of chemotherapy is not optimized for improving the quality of life of people who are older, who are the most vulnerable subpopulation. This review presents recent updates regarding secondary metabolites derived from marine fungi and actinobacteria as novel alternatives for cytotoxic agents against colorectal cancer cell lines HCT116, HT29, HCT15, RKO, Caco-2, and SW480. The observed marine-derived fungi were from the species Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp., Neosartorya sp., Dichotomomyces sp., Paradendryphiella sp., and Westerdykella sp. Additionally, Streptomyces sp. and Nocardiopsis sp. are actinobacteria discussed in this study. Seventy one compounds reviewed in this study were grouped on the basis of their chemical structures. Indole alkaloids and diketopiperazines made up most compounds with higher potencies when compared with other groups. The potency of indole alkaloids and diketopiperazines was most probably due to halogen-based functional groups and sulfide groups, respectively.
The utilization of mangrove plants as traditional medicinal ingredients has long been utilized by the community for treatment of various diseases in favour of bioactive components from its secondary metabolites. Secondary metabolites from mangroves could act as an antioxidant to prevent oxidative stress. Mangrove may contain endophytic microbes in its tissues that are capable of producing secondary metabolites. In theory, endophytic microbes isolated from a plant can produce secondary metabolites similar to those of the original plants or even in relatively high numbers. In this research, two mangrove species Avicennia marina and Xylocarpus granatum from Serang, Banten province, samples have been taken to investigate the antioxidant activities of its extracts. Furthermore, isolation of endophytic microbes from both mangroves had been done. This research succeeded to isolate six fungi and three bacteria as endophytic microbes. Meanwhile, the highest extraction yield was obtained by the leaves of A. marina that is approximately 3% (w/w), whereas mangroves’ endophytic microbe highest extract yield was obtained by bacteria from fruits of A. marina 18 mg/100 mL media. For antioxidant activities, the highest activities were obtained by fungi within the stems and the roots of A. marina, also additionally fungi in the leaves of X. granatum.
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