Soft corals are well-known as excellent sources of marine-derived natural products. Among them, members of the genera Sarcophyton, Sinularia, and Lobophytum are especially attractive targets for marine natural product research. In this review, we reported the marine-derived natural products called cembranoids isolated from soft corals, including the genera Sarcophyton, Sinularia, and Lobophytum. Here, we reviewed 72 reports published between 2016 and 2020, comprising 360 compounds, of which 260 are new compounds and 100 are previously known compounds with newly recognized activities. The novelty of the organic molecules and their relevant biological activities, delivered by the year of publication, are presented. Among the genera presented in this report, Sarcophyton spp. produce the most cembranoid diterpenes; thus, they are considered as the most important soft corals for marine natural product research. Cembranoids display diverse biological activities, including anti-cancer, anti-bacterial, and anti-inflammatory. As cembranoids have been credited with a broad range of biological activities, they present a huge potential for the development of various drugs with potential health and ecological benefits. Graphic Abstract
Novel secondary metabolites from marine macroorganisms and marine-derived microorganisms have been intensively investigated in the last few decades. Several classes of compounds, especially indole alkaloids, have been a target for evaluating biological and pharmacological activities. As one of the most promising classes of compounds, indole alkaloids possess not only intriguing structural features but also a wide range of biological/pharmacological activities including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antidiabetic, and antiparasitic activities. This review reports the indole alkaloids isolated during the period of 2016–2021 and their relevant biological/pharmacological activities. The marine-derived indole alkaloids reported from 2016 to 2021 were collected from various scientific databases. A total of 186 indole alkaloids from various marine organisms including fungi, bacteria, sponges, bryozoans, mangroves, and algae, are described. Despite the described bioactivities, further evaluation including their mechanisms of action and biological targets is needed to determine which of these indole alkaloids are worth studying to obtain lead compounds for the development of new drugs.
Marine invertebrates have been reported to be an excellent resource of many novel bioactive compounds. Studies reported that Indonesia has remarkable yet underexplored marine natural products, with a high chemical diversity and a broad spectrum of biological activities. This review discusses recent updates on the exploration of marine natural products from Indonesian marine invertebrates (i.e., sponges, tunicates, and soft corals) throughout 2007–2020. This paper summarizes the structural diversity and biological function of the bioactive compounds isolated from Indonesian marine invertebrates as antimicrobial, antifungal, anticancer, and antiviral, while also presenting the opportunity for further investigation of novel compounds derived from Indonesian marine invertebrates.
An antiviral agent is urgently needed based on the high probability of the emergence and re-emergence of future viral disease, highlighted by the recent global COVID-19 pandemic. The emergence may be seen in the discovery of the Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, and recently discovered Omicron variants of SARS-CoV-2. The need for strategies besides testing and isolation, social distancing, and vaccine development is clear. One of the strategies includes searching for an antiviral agent that provides effective results without toxicity, which is well-presented by significant results for carrageenan nasal spray in providing efficacy against human coronavirus-infected patients. As the primary producer of sulfated polysaccharides, marine plants, including macro- and microalgae, offer versatility in culture, production, and post-isolation development in obtaining the needed antiviral agent. Therefore, this review will describe an attempt to highlight the search for practical and safe antiviral agents from algal-based sulfated polysaccharides and to unveil their features for future development.
Andrographispaniculata (Burm.f.) Nees has been used as a traditional medicine in Asian countries, especially China, India, Vietnam, Malaysia, and Indonesia. This herbaceous plant extract contains active compounds with multiple biological activities against various diseases, including the flu, colds, fever, diabetes, hypertension, and cancer. Several isolated compounds from A. paniculata, such as andrographolide and its analogs, have attracted much interest for their potential treatment against several virus infections, including SARS-CoV-2. The mechanisms of action in inhibiting viral infections can be categorized into several types, including regulating the viral entry stage, gene replication, and the formation of mature functional proteins. The efficacy of andrographolide as an antiviral candidate was further investigated since the phytoconstituents of A. paniculata exhibit various physicochemical characteristics, including low solubility and low bioavailability. A discussion on the delivery systems of these active compounds could accelerate their development for commercial applications as antiviral drugs. This study critically reviewed the current antiviral development based on andrographolide and its derivative compounds, especially on their mechanism of action as antiviral drugs and drug delivery systems.
Pewarna alami lebih disukai karena tidak memiliki efek yang negatif terhadap tubuh manusia sehingga mempunyai tingkat keamanan pangan yang tinggi, selain itu juga pewarna alami mudah diuraikan. Bahan pewarna alami bisa diperoleh dari berbagai jenis sumber, salah satunya yaitu spesies alga yang merupakan tumbuhan tingkat rendah di perairan. Alga terdapat 2 jenis yaitu makroalga yang berukuran besar dan mikroalga yang berukuran kecil (renik). Spesies mikroalga yang dapat menghasilkan pewarna alami salah satunya adalah Spirulina. Jenis pewarna alami yang terkandung pada mikroalga tersebut yaitu fikosianin. Pada penelitian ini, dilakukan ekstraksi fikosianin dari Spirulina platensis dengan menggunakan tiga metode berbeda yaitu Maserasi, Ultrasound-Assisted-Extraction (UAE) dan Freezing untuk mengetahui metode mana untuk menghasilkan yield dan antioksidan tertinggi dari ekstrak yang dihasilkan. Hasil dari penelitian ini didapatkan bahwa berdasarkan nilai yield tertinggi dan kandungan fikosianin, freezing merupakan metode ekstraksi terbaik dengan kandungan fikosianin yang paling tinggi yaitu sebesar 26,53%. Sedangkan nilai aktivitas antioksidan terbesar dihasilkan oleh metode ekstraksi maserasi dengan nilai IC50 sebesar 49,59 ppm. Fikosianin yang dihasilkan dari ketiga metode ekstraksi termasuk antioksidan kuat.KATA KUNCI: ekstraksi, Spirulina plantesis, fikosianin, biopigmen, antioksidanEXTRACTION OF PHYCOCYANIN FROM SPIRULINA PLANTESIS FOR BIOPIGMENT AND ANTIOXIDANTABSTRACTRecently, biopigment known as a pigment which has no impact and easy to degradated in human body and better than artificial pigment. Biopigment can be resulted from the extraction of algae that are living in the water. Spirulina plantesis is one of algae resulting a pigment and known as phycocyanin. In this research, extraction of phycocyanin was done by three method of extractions; maceration, Ultrasound-Assisted-Extraction (UAE) and Freeze-thaw. Those extraction methods were compared to decide which method that resulted highest yield of extraction and has highest antioxidant activities. From the resulted data, the highest yield and highest phycocyanin concentration was obtained by freeze-thaw extraction method. Phycocyanin concentration from freeze-thaw ectract was 26,53% (w/w). However, the highest antioxidant activities was obtained by maceraion extraction mehod. The IC50 of extract from maceration was 49,59 ppm. Hence, all extracts from different extraction methods resulted high antioxidant activities.
Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed in the world. Chemotheraphy is one of the most common methods used for the pharmacological treatment of this cancer patients. Nevertheless, the adverse effect of chemotherapy is not optimized for improving the quality of life of people who are older, who are the most vulnerable subpopulation. This review presents recent updates regarding secondary metabolites derived from marine fungi and actinobacteria as novel alternatives for cytotoxic agents against colorectal cancer cell lines HCT116, HT29, HCT15, RKO, Caco-2, and SW480. The observed marine-derived fungi were from the species Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp., Neosartorya sp., Dichotomomyces sp., Paradendryphiella sp., and Westerdykella sp. Additionally, Streptomyces sp. and Nocardiopsis sp. are actinobacteria discussed in this study. Seventy one compounds reviewed in this study were grouped on the basis of their chemical structures. Indole alkaloids and diketopiperazines made up most compounds with higher potencies when compared with other groups. The potency of indole alkaloids and diketopiperazines was most probably due to halogen-based functional groups and sulfide groups, respectively.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers
Part of the Research Solutions Family.