Kunyit (Curcuma longa) merupakan tanaman obat tradisional yang biasa digunakan sebagai bumbu masakan dan sebagai bahan obat meliputi antimikroba, antioksidan,antitumor, dan anti inflamasi. Tujuan dari penelitian ini ialah untuk mengetahui aktivitasantimikroba dan antioksidan dari beberapa organ tanaman kunyit meliputi akar, rimpang,batang, dan daun. Semua bagian diekstraksi dengan etanol dan etil asetat. Seluruh ekstraketanol dan etil asetat diuji aktivitas antimikrobanya menggunakan metode difusi cakramkertas terhadap Escherichia coli,Staphylococcus aureus, dan Candida albicans.Kloramfenikol dan nistatin masing-masing digunakan sebagai kontrol positif untuk ujiantibakteri dan antijamur, sedangkan masing-masing pelarut untuk ekstraksi juga digunakansebagai kontrol negatif. Aktivitas antioksidan dilakukan menggunakan metode 1,1-difenil-2pikril hidrazil (DPPH) dan asam askorbat digunakan sebagai standar. Hasil aktivitas antimikroba menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak etil asetat dari daun dan batang memiliki aktivitas penghambatan tertinggi terhadap S. aureus, ekstrak etil asetat dari akar dan batang memiliki aktivitas penghambatan tertinggi terhadap E. coli, dan ekstrak etil asetat dari daun memilikiaktivitas penghambatan tertinggi terhadap C. albicans. Ekstrak etil asetat dari rimpangmemiliki aktivitas antioksidan tertinggi diantara ekstrak lainnya.
Article Info AbstractAn increase in blood glucose levels in people with diabetes can cause an increase in free radicals, which can worsen the disease. Thus, drugs that have antidiabetic and antioxidant activities are needed. The cinnamon plant is high in antioxidants and has long been used as a source for a diabetes drug. The utilization of endophytic fungi isolated from cinnamon plants as antidiabetic and antioxidant has never been reported. This study aims to investigate the antidiabetic as well as antioxidant activity from the extract of endophytic fungi from the cinnamon plant. The antidiabetic activity was tested using the -glucosidase enzyme inhibition method , while antioxidant activity was tested using the DPPH free radical scavenging method. Total phenol content was measured based on the Follin-Ciocalteu reagent reaction. All endophytic fungal extracts from the cinnamon leaves, twigs, flowers, and fruit have antidiabetic and antioxidant activity as well as high total phenol content. The three parameters measured showed a positive correlation. Endophytic fungal extract of Cb.D6 isolate derived from the leaf had the highest antidiabetic and antioxidant activity among the other isolates amounting to 92.41 % and 90.28 %, respectively. In addition, the total phenol content of Cb.D6 isolates was also the highest with 357 -83 mg equivalent to gallic acid / g extract. Therefore, the endophytic fungal extract of Cb.D6 isolate has the potential to be developed as a source of the antidiabetic and antioxidant ingredients.
The utilization of mangrove plants as traditional medicinal ingredients has long been utilized by the community for treatment of various diseases in favour of bioactive components from its secondary metabolites. Secondary metabolites from mangroves could act as an antioxidant to prevent oxidative stress. Mangrove may contain endophytic microbes in its tissues that are capable of producing secondary metabolites. In theory, endophytic microbes isolated from a plant can produce secondary metabolites similar to those of the original plants or even in relatively high numbers. In this research, two mangrove species Avicennia marina and Xylocarpus granatum from Serang, Banten province, samples have been taken to investigate the antioxidant activities of its extracts. Furthermore, isolation of endophytic microbes from both mangroves had been done. This research succeeded to isolate six fungi and three bacteria as endophytic microbes. Meanwhile, the highest extraction yield was obtained by the leaves of A. marina that is approximately 3% (w/w), whereas mangroves’ endophytic microbe highest extract yield was obtained by bacteria from fruits of A. marina 18 mg/100 mL media. For antioxidant activities, the highest activities were obtained by fungi within the stems and the roots of A. marina, also additionally fungi in the leaves of X. granatum.
Air pollution can increase free radicals that may worsen some diseases. Antioxidants such as phenol and flavonoid compounds are known to counteract these free radicals. Long term use of synthetic antioxidants is known to cause bad effects on the body. Therefore, the necessity to search for natural antioxidants from plants and its endophytic microbes continues with the hope to obtain potential natural antioxidants with minimum side effects. The purpose of this study was to determine the antioxidant activity, total phenolic, and flavonoid contents of the extract of endophytic fungi which were derived from the Bogor-originated turmeric leaves via in vitro isolation. DPPH free radical scavenging method was used to determine in vitro antioxidant activity. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents assays were based on the Follin-Ciocalteu and aluminium chloride reagents, respectively. The extract of endophytic fungi of Bo.Ci.Cl.D1 and Bo.Ci.Cl.D2 showed antioxidant activity with IC50 value at 24.04 and 96.08 mg/L, respectively. Total phenolic content of Bo.Ci.Cl.D1 and Bo.Ci.Cl.D2 extracts were 113.47 and 81.83 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract respectively. Total flavonoid content of Bo.Cl.D1 and Bo.Ci.Cl.D2 extracts were 41.79 and 38.50 mg quercetin equivalent/g extract, respectively. Based on these assays, it could be concluded that the extract of Bo.Ci.Cl.D1 has better antioxidant activities than Bo.Ci.Cl.D2.
ABSTRAKPenyakit malaria disebabkan oleh parasit Plasmodium yang dalam siklusnya akan mendegradasi hemeoglobin menjadi asam amino dan heme bebas yang toksik untuk parasit. Untuk menetralkan toksisitas heme bebas, parasit akan mengubahnya menjadi hemeozoin melalui proses polimerisasi heme. Proses ini sangat penting dalam siklus hidup parasit sehingga dapat dijadikan sebagai target obat antimalaria. Daun sembung dilaporkan mempunyai aktivitas antimalaria baik secara in vitro maupun in vivo, tetapi mekanismenya belum pernah dilaporkan. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui aktivitas penghambatan polimerisasi heme ekstrak daun sembung dan golongan senyawa yang terdapat pada ekstrak dengan aktivitas penghambatan terbaik. Daun sembung diekstrak dengan pelarut n-heksan, etil asetat, dan etanol 70%. Uji antimalaria in vitro dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode penghambatan polimerisasi heme. Ekstrak dengan aktivitas penghambatan terbaik diukur nilai IC 50 dan dilanjutkan dengan skrining fitokimia. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan ekstrak n-heksan, etil asetat, dan etanol 70% mempunyai aktivitas penghambatan polimerisasi heme pada konsentrasi 1 mg ml -1 masing-masing sebesar 11,28; 26,26; dan 56,88%. Nilai IC 50 ekstrak etanol 70% sebesar 0,978 mg ml -1 . Ketiga ekstrak memiliki aktivitas penghambatan polimerisasi heme dan ekstrak etanol 70% memiliki aktivitas tertinggi. Skrining fitokimia menunjukkan daun sembung yang diekstrak dengan etanol 70% mengandung golongan senyawa flavonoid, triterpenoid, kuinon, tanin, dan saponin.Kata kunci: Blumea balsamifera, antimalaria, in vitro, polimerisasi heme, skrining fitokimia ABSTRACT Malaria disease is caused by Plasmodium parasite which will degrade haemoglobin into amino acid and free haem, that is toxic for the parasite, as part of their life cycle. To neutralize its toxicity, the parasite will convert free haem into hemeozoin through haem polymerization process. This process is important for the parasite, hence it can be targetted by antimalarial drugs. Blumea balsamifera leaf was reported to have antimalarial activity both in vitro and in vivo. However, there was no report about its mechanisms. The aim of this study was to study the hame polymerization inhibitory activity of B. balsamifera leaf extracts and its chemeical compounds from the extract with the highest inhibitory activity. N-hexane, ethyl acetate, and 70% ethanol were used as extractor. Haem polymerization inhibitory was used as in vitro antimalarial assay. IC 50 value and phytochemeical screening were performed for the extract with the highest inhibitory activity. The results showed that 1 mg ml -1 of n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and 70% ethanol had haem polymerization inhibitory activity at 11.28, 26.26 and 56.88% respectively. The IC 50 value of 70% ethanol extract was 0.978 mg ml -1 . All extracts treatments had haem polymerization inhibitory activity with 70% ethanol extract gave the highest inhibitory activity. Phytochemical screening showed that B. balsamifera leaf extracted with 70% ethanol contained flavonoids, tr...
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