the objective of the study was to compare the effect of organic and conventional rearing systems on the productivity and meat quality of Yellowleg Partridge (Ż-33) and Rhode Island Red (R-11) chickens. a total of 492 sexed experimental birds (Gallus domesticus) were assigned to four groups. In groups I-C and III-C, the Ż-33 and R-11 chickens were reared under intensive conditions following conventional farming principles. In groups II-O and IV-O, the Ż-33 and R-11 chickens were kept according to organic farming principles. Body weight, feed conversion (kg/kg gain) and mortality were recorded throughout the study. On day 140 of rearing, the native breed chickens were subjected to simplified slaughter analysis, and meat pH, muscle colour, water holding capacity and chilling loss were determined. the meat samples were analysed for the chemical composition and profile of fatty acids, and the peroxidizability index (PI), thrombogenic index (TI) and atherogenicity index (AI) were calculated. The organically raised chickens were characterised by higher body weight (P≤0.01), better feed conversion (P≤0.01) and more favourable fatty acid profile of the muscles compared to the conventionally reared birds. Under organic conditions, the R-11 chickens showed better productivity but slightly poorer fatty acid profile of the muscles compared to the Ż-11 chickens.key words: chickens, native breeds, organic production system, performance, meat quality, fatty acid profile Organic farming is becoming increasingly popular in Europe and around the world. The main cause is the growing demand from consumers who are looking for safer and better controlled food products and who show concern for a healthy environment and animal welfare.
This study investigated the effect of adding extracts from selected herbs to water on alleviation of broiler stress associated with intensive production, and thus on improvement of welfare. In experimental groups (II, III and IV), alcoholic extracts from chamomile inflorescence (Matricaria chamomilla L.), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) or from St John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), respectively, were added to water drinkers (2 ml ∙ l-1 water) from 21 to 35 days of rearing for 5 h/day. Throughout the experiment, body weight, feed and water intake and number of dead birds were recorded once a week. At 21, 28, 35 and 42 days of rearing, blood was collected from 7 birds in each group to determine the levels of corticosterone, cholesterol, glucose, and the immunoglobulin complex. The response of birds to the herbal additives was positive. The herb extracts contributed to a decrease in cholesterol level and an increase in the level of the immunoglobulin complex in the blood. Supplementation of water with chamomile and St John’s wort extracts contributed to an increase in body weight, while the extracts from lemon balm and St John’s wort also had a positive effect on broiler survival. The results obtained indicate that out of the three herbs chosen for the experiment, St John’s wort extract proved the most efficient in relieving the body’s physiological response to stress, and thus in improving welfare.
The aim of the study was to compare morphometric indices and the mineralization level of humerus, femur and tibia in Leghorn (H-22), Sussex (S-66) and Rhode Island Red (R-11) hens at different age (weeks 6., 16., 45. and 64.), as well as some blood parameters. The material for the experiment was one-day old chicks of breeds: Leghorn (H-22), Sussex (S-66) and Rhode Island Red –RIR (R-11), which were separated into three groups. At 6, 16, 45 and 64 weeks of the study, 10 birds selected from each group were weighed, slaughtered, and their right femurs, tibiae and humeri were dissected. After removing soft tissues, the bones were weighed and measured for length, diameter, and the Seedor index (SI) was calculated. The bones were analysed for the content of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) and crude ash (CA). At 64 weeks, blood was collected from the hens and analysed for the concentration of Ca, P, pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline. The study showed that hen breed had an effect mostly on morphometric indices of the bones such as bone weight and diameter, and the Seedor index (SI), while the age of birds had an effect on the bone mineralization level up to 45 weeks of age. The bone mineralization did not decrease in the studied breeds of hens at the end of the laying period. It was also found that heavier birds (RIR) had greater diameter bones and a higher SI, but the content of ash and minerals in the bones of that breed was generally similar to the Leghorn and Sussex hens. RIR hens exhibited higher phosphorus plasma concentration compared to Sussex hens. This may suggest that RIR birds have a slightly stronger bone system compared to Leghorn and Sussex hens.
this study was designed to provide a thorough characterization of individual organic farms with certified animal production in Poland in the years 2009-2011. The study consisted of a direct survey using a standard questionnaire. Monitoring of organic farms showed that organic animal production in Poland is still developing. The most common type is backyard subsistence farming for own consumption and possibly for direct sales at local markets. Organic farms with an area exceeding 20 ha tend to orient themselves towards specialized production of cattle, sheep or pigs, while medium-sized organic farms specialize in pork and organic lamb production. However, the observed specialization in livestock production on organic farms is still relatively small.
The currently used poultry farming methods, which aim to maximise economic profit, are based on ever new technological solutions that improve flock management and increase bird performance. However, they do not always meet the natural needs of birds. Every housing method and technological solution currently in use is faced with some issues, such as social stress, adverse temperature/humidity conditions, risk of zoonoses, and behavioural pathologies, which determine poultry performance and welfare. Disregard for animal welfare involves not only ethical but also practical aspects, because well-being and housing comfort translate into better weight gains, health and productivity of the birds. The studies reported here suggest that every production system, despite the many welfare-improving aspects, causes numerous behavioural, productivity and health abnormalities in laying hens. Therefore, further research is needed to identify various risk factors for the purpose of improving housing systems and increasing the welfare of hens.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.