Knowledge about the Brazilian fungal diversity was, until 2010, recorded in few taxonomy and ecology publications, as well as in a handful of species lists. With the publication of the Catálogo de Plantas e Fungos do Brasil and the continued availability of an online list, it has been possible to aggregate this dispersed knowledge. The version presented here adds 2,111 species names to the 3,608 listed in 2010. A total of 5,719 species of fungi distributed in 1,246 genera, 102 orders and 13 phyla represents a considerable increase over the last five years, when only 924 genera and 78 orders were registered. Basidiomycota (2,741 species in 22 orders) and Ascomycota (1,881 species in 41 orders) predominate over other groups. The Atlantic Rainforest has the largest number of records, with 3,017 species, followed by Amazon Rainforest (1,050), Caatinga (999), Cerrado (638) and Pampa and Pantanal with 84 and 35 species, respectively. The Northeast region has the greatest richness (2,617 species), followed by Southeast (2,252), South (1,995), North (1,301) and Central-West (488 species). Regarding the States of the Federation, São Paulo with 1,846 species, Pernambuco with 1,611 and Rio Grande do Sul with 1,377 species are the most diverse. Key words: Taxonomy, mycology, brazilian regions.
ResumoAté 2010, o conhecimento sobre a diversidade de fungos do Brasil estava registrado em publicações esparsas de taxonomia e ecologia e em algumas poucas listas de espécies. Com a publicação do Catálogo de Plantas e Fungos do Brasil, e a disponibilização da lista online, tem sido possível agregar o conhecimento disperso. A versão ora apresentada acrescenta 2.111 nomes de espécies aos 3.608 listados em 2010. São citadas 5.719 espécies de fungos distribuídas em 1.246 gêneros, 102 ordens e 13 divisões, consistindo em considerável aumento em relação a 2010, quando estavam registrados 924 gêneros e 78 ordens. Predominam os Basidiomycota (2.741 espécies, em 22 ordens) e Ascomycota (1.881 espécies, em 41 ordens). A Mata Atlântica possui a maior quantidade de registros, com 3.017 espécies, seguido pela Amazonia (1.050), Caatinga (999), Cerrado (638) e Pampa e Pantanal com 84 e 35 espécies, respectivamente. A região Nordeste tem a maior riqueza (2.617 especies), seguida pelo Sudeste (2.252), Sul (1.995), Norte (1.301) e Centro Oeste (488 espécies). Em relação aos Estados da Federação, São Paulo (1.846 espécies), Pernambuco (1.611) e Rio Grande do Sul (1.377) são os mais diversos. Palavras-chave: Taxonomia, micologia, regiões brasileiras.
Phytophthora capsici is a diverse species causing disease on a broad range of both temperate and tropical plants. In this study, we used cultural characteristics, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), and DNA sequence analyses of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II (cox II) genes to characterize temperate and tropical isolates from a wide range of host species. All but one temperate isolate grew at 35 degrees C, while all tropical isolates did not. All but two tropical isolates formed chlamydospores, while temperate isolates did not. There was strong bootstrap support for separation of temperate and tropical isolates using AFLP analysis; however, the temperate isolates appeared as a subgroup within the observed variation of the tropical isolates. The majority of temperate isolates clustered within a single clade with low variation regardless of host or geographical origin, while the tropical isolates were more variable and grouped into three distinct clades. Two clades of tropical isolates grouped together and were affiliated closely with the temperate isolates, while the third tropical clade was more distantly related. Phylogenetic analysis of the ITS regions resulted in similar groupings and variation within and between the temperate and tropical isolates as with the AFLP results. Sequence divergence among isolates and clades was low, with more variation within the tropical isolates than within the temperate isolates. Analysis of other species revealed shorter branch lengths separating temperate and tropical isolates than were observed in comparisons among other phylogenetically closely related species in the genus. Analysis of cox II sequence data was less clear. Although the temperate and tropical isolates grouped together apart from other species, there was no bootstrap support for separating these isolates. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the ITS regions separated the temperate and tropical isolates, as in the AFLP and ITS phylogenetic analyses. However, RFLP analysis of the cox I and II gene cluster did not distinguish between temperate and tropical isolates. The differences in grouping of isolates in these two RFLP studies should be helpful in identifying isolate subgroups. Our data do not fully clarify whether or not temperate and tropical isolates should be separated into different species. The available worldwide data are incomplete and the full range of variation in the species is not yet known. We suggest refraining from using the epithet P. tropicalis until more data are available.
Witch's broom (WB) and frost pod rot (FPR) are devastating fungal diseases and responsible for severe losses in cacao trees grown in tropical America. To expand and stabilize the resistance to WB in cacao progenies, as well as to incorporate resistance genes to FPR, 17 genotypes were selected from a structured population. These were used in a second selection cycle, in which four gene donors of FPR resistance were included. All but one of the 59 and 52 progenies differed significantly (P < 0.05) from the susceptible controls Catongo and SIC 23, respectively. Nineteen progenies differed significantly (P < 0.05) from the resistance control SCA 6, suggesting high WB resistance. The direct descendants of cacao genotypes from the Brazilian Amazon and from clones carrying FPR resistance showed lower disease index than the resistant control SCA 6, except for some of the progenies of clone ICS 95, which behaved similarly to the susceptible control. The study highlights nine progenies carrying WB resistance genes from several sources and seven of them from parents carrying frosty pod resistance genes.
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