Background/Aim: In Poland, vegetarian diets are becoming more and more popular. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of iron intake on iron status in vegetarian children. Methods: Dietary iron intake, iron food sources, blood count, serum iron, ferritin level and total iron-binding capacity were estimated in two groups of children, namely vegetarians (n = 22) and omnivores (n = 18) of both sexes, aged from 2 to 18 years. Seven-day food records were used to assess their diet. Results: Dietary iron intake in vegetarians and omnivores was low (up to 65.0 and 60.1% of the recommended dietary allowance). A significantly higher intake of vitamin C was observed in vegetarians compared with omnivores (p = 0.019). The main sources of iron in vegetarians were cereal products, followed by vegetables and mushroom products, then fruit. The prevalence of iron deficiency (ID) was higher in the vegetarian group (p = 0.023). The serum ferritin level and mean corpuscular volume in the vegetarians were also lower than in the omnivores (p = 0.01 and p = 0.014, respectively). Conclusions: Children who follow a vegetarian diet may suffer from ID in spite of having a high vitamin C intake. This indicates the need to introduce dietary education and iron status monitoring.
Kawasaki disease (KD) is one of the most common vasculitides of childhood. The aim of this retrospective study is to determine the incidence of KD and to evaluate its presenting symptoms, clinical course, laboratory tests, and treatment in patients with complete KD and incomplete KD at three pediatric rheumatology centers in Poland from January 2011 to December 2012. A total of 27 Caucasian children (12 boys and 15 girls) with median age of 3 years (range 4 months–12 years) were included in this study. The incidence of complete versus incomplete KD was 17 (63 %) versus 10 (37 %) children, respectively. Patients with incomplete KD significantly less presented cervical lymphadenopathy (20 vs. 88.2 %; p = 0.00075), changes in extremities (30 vs. 76.5 %; p = 0.04), and bilateral nonpurulent conjunctivitis (60 vs. 100 %; p = 0.01). Cardiac assessments show that the majority of patients with KD have not got coronary artery aneurysms (CAA). The median time from the onset of symptoms to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) infusion was 7 days for complete KD and 11 days for incomplete KD. IVIG delay in the incomplete KD had no effect on the incidence of CAA. In conclusion, there were no differences in demographic features, age of onset, and laboratory tests of patients with complete and incomplete KD. Patients with incomplete KD significantly rarely presented cervical lymphadenopathy, changes in extremities, and conjunctival injection. Electrocardiography is a sensitive test to recognize cardiac involvement in the acute phase of KD. Despite the fact that incomplete forms of presentation often delay diagnosis, in most patients treatment with IVIG can avoid complication of CAA.
Introduction. Airway management is one of key elements of resuscitation. Endotracheal intubation is still considered the gold standard for airway management during resuscitation. Aim. The aim of the study was to compare success rates and intubation time of different endotracheal intubation methods during emergency intubation with difficult airways in the conditions of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a standardized manikin model. Methods. The study was designed as a prospective, randomized, cross-over simulation study. It involved 46 paramedics with at least 5 years of experience in Emergency Medical Service. The participants performed endotracheal intubation under difficult airway conditions during continuous chest compression, implemented with the LUCAS3 chest compression system. Three methods of tracheal intubation were applied: (1) standard Macintosh laryngoscope without a bougie stylet; (2) standard laryngoscope and a standard bougie stylet; (3) standard laryngoscope and a new bougie stylet. Results. The overall intubation success rate was 100% in the standard bougie and new bougie groups and lower (86.9%) when no bougie stylet was used (P=0.028). The intubation success rate with the 1st attempt equalled 91.3% for the new bougie group, 73.9% for standard bougie, and only 23.9% in the no-bougie group. The median intubation time was shortest in the new bougie group, where it amounted to 29 s (interquartile range [IQR]: 25–38); the time equalled 38s (IQR:31–44.5) in the standard bougie group and 47.5s (IQR:36–58) in the no-bougie group. The ease of use was lowest in the no-bougie group (85, IQR:63–88), average in the standard bougie group (44, IQR:30–51), and highest in the new bougie stylet group (32, IQR:19–41). Conclusion. In this manikin-based study, paramedics were able to perform endotracheal intubation with higher efficacy and in a shorter time using the new bougie stylet as compared with the standard bougie stylet.
Neuropeptides such as substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) play both pro- and anti-inflammatory activities and are produced during infection and inflammation. Moraxella catarrhalis is one of the leading infectious agents responsible for inflammatory exacerbation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Since the airway inflammation in COPD is connected with activation of both epithelial cells and accumulated neutrophils, in this study we determined the in vitro effects of neuropeptides on the inflammatory potential of these cells in response to M. catarrhalis outer membrane vesicle (OMV) stimulant. The various OMV-mediated proinflammatory effects were demonstrated. Next, using hBD-2-pGL4[luc2] plasmid with luciferase reporter gene, SP and CGRP were shown to inhibit the IL-1β-dependent expression of potent neutrophil chemoattractant, hBD-2 defensin, in transfected A549 epithelial cells (type II alveolar cells) upon OMV stimulation. Both neuropeptides exerted antiapoptotic activity through rescuing a significant fraction of A549 cells from OMV-induced cell death and apoptosis. Finally, CGRP caused an impairment of specific but not azurophilic granule exocytosis from neutrophils as shown by evaluation of gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) or CD66b expression and elastase release, respectively. Concluding, these findings suggest that SP and CGRP mediate the dampening of proinflammatory action triggered by M. catarrhalis OMVs towards cells engaged in lung inflammation in vitro.
We investigated the association between dietary intake of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), serum profiles, and immune and inflammatory markers in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) in relation to onset, activity, and duration. A total of 66 JIA patients and 42 controls were included. Serum PUFA levels were assessed by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, a dietary intake by 7-day dietary record method, and IL-6, IL-10, and IL-17A levels using ELISA. Dietary PUFA intake did not differ between the JIA group and controls. Intakes of n-6 and n-3 PUFA and serum levels were not associated. Levels of total n-6 PUFA and linoleic acid (LA) were higher in inactive JIA than in active JIA. Patients with active and short-lasting disease (less than 3 months from diagnosis) had significantly lower levels of arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) than the control. Serum α-linolenic acid (ALA) levels were significantly higher in poly-JIA than in oligo-JIA and in controls. We found significantly higher serum IL-10 levels in JIA than in controls. Serum n-6 and n-3 levels were significantly negatively correlated with active joint count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein and positively with platelet count. Our study presents the low levels of AA and DHA in the active phase of short-lasting JIA, particularly poly-JIA, and the relationship between n-6 and n-3 PUFA and classic markers of inflammation. PUFAs may contribute to the pathogenesis of JIA and support a necessity to identify new targets suitable for successful interventional studies in JIA patients.
Herein, we present a new test, dubbed AntiBioVol, to be used for the quantitative evaluation of antibiofilm activity of volatile compounds in vitro. AntiBioVol is performed in two 24-well plates using a basic microbiological laboratory equipment. To demonstrate AntiBioVol usability, we have scrutinized the activity of volatilized eucalyptus, tea tree, thyme essential oils, and ethanol (used for method suitability testing) against biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. We have also compared AntiBioVol with the standard disc volatilization method, placing a special stress on evaluating the impact of various technical parameters on the outcomes of the latter method. The obtained results indicate that AntiBioVol allows analyzing the antibiofilm activity of volatile compounds in a high number of repeats and provides semi-quantitative or quantitative results of high repeatability. In comparison to disc volatilization, AntiBioVol is a more space- and cost-effective method that allows analyzing various types of microbial aggregates. Moreover, we have indicated that the possible reasons for the discrepancies in the results obtained by means of the standard disc volatilization method may be related to various parameters of the testing dishes used (height, volume, diameter) and to various volumes of the agar medium applied. In turn, the application of a 24-well plate and a strictly defined AntiBioVol protocol provide a higher control of experimental conditions. Therefore, the application of AntiBioVol may enable an optimization of and introduction of volatile compounds to the fight against infective biofilms.
A direct contribution towards destructive, proliferative synovitis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been attributed to reactive oxygen species action. Some nutrients are considered to be capable of improving the oxidant/antioxidant status in RA; however the impact of diet composition on the antioxidant capacity of serum has not yet been studied in this disease. The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between diet quality and antioxidant status in patients with RA and healthy controls. Nutritional assessment was performed, and antioxidant status in serum, without and with deproteinization (TAS and DSAS, resp.), was determined in 82 RA and 87 healthy subjects. The diet of the RA group was low-energy and imbalanced. TAS and DSAS were significantly lower in RA patients than in controls. Antioxidant status significantly correlated with the supply of foods and nutrients influencing antioxidant and anti-inflammatory defense in RA; however, in this group, TAS was more sensitive to diet than DSAS. In healthy subjects, the nonprotein pool of serum antioxidants was more tightly linked to diet. These outcomes indicate the need to monitor diet quality of patients with RA and the usefulness of TAS measurements in this monitoring.
H. Silicon intake and plasma level and their relationships with systemic redox and inflammatory markers in rheumatoid arthritis patients. AbstractBackground. The nutritional significance of silicon for the human body is highlighted by a continually growing body of evidence. In conditions of excessive reactive oxygen species and upregulated immune response, silicon has been observed to provide benefits, but its role in redox and inflammatory status has not yet been examined in rheumatoid arthritis (RA).Objectives. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship of silicon intake and plasma level to systemic indices of redox status and inflammation in patients with RA.Material and methods. Silicon intake and plasma levels were measured in 115 RA subjects and 129 control subjects. Serum antioxidant and oxidant levels, antioxidant enzyme activity, and albumin, uric acid, TBARS, hs-CRP, and IL-6 levels were measured and compared to the intake and plasma levels of silicon.Results. Silicon intake and plasma silicon levels were higher in RA subjects than in the controls. In the RA group, a generally favorable correlation to redox and inflammatory markers was found for silicon in diet and in plasma; however, albumin level, smoking status, and gender interfered with these results. In the control subjects, a significant relationship was observed only between plasma silicon and non-enzymatic markers of redox status. Conclusions.There are suggestions of silicon's involvement in managing redox and inflammatory status in RA, though further studies are warranted.
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