Most of the carbon-based compounds currently manufactured by the chemical industry are derived from petroleum. The rising cost and dwindling supply of oil have been focusing attention on possible routes to making chemicals, fuels, and solvents from biomass instead. In this context, many recent studies have assessed the relative merits of applying different dedicated crops to chemical production. Here, we highlight the opportunities for diverting existing residual biomass--the by-products of present agricultural and food-processing streams--to this end.
originates from the AM process. To understand the effect of the microstructure on the tensile properties, selective laser melted (SLM) Ti-6Al-4V samples built in three different orientations were tensile tested. The investigated samples were near fully dense, in two distinct conditions, as-built and stress relieved respectively. It was found that the build orientation affects the tensile properties, and in particular the ductility of the samples. The mechanical anisotropy of the parts was discussed in relation to the crystallographic texture, phase composition and the predominant fracture mechanisms. Fractography and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) results indicate that the predominant fracture mechanism is 2 intergranular fracture along the grain boundaries present and thus provide and explanation for the typical fracture surface features observed in fracture AM Ti-6Al-4V.
Rapid manufacturing (RM) is a modern production method based on layer by layer manufacturing directly from a three-dimensional computer-aided design model. The lack of tooling makes RM economically suitable for low and medium production volumes. A comparison with traditional manufacturing processes is important; in particular, cost comparison. Cost is usually the key point for decision making, with break-even points for different manufacturing technologies being the dominant information for decision makers. Cost models used for traditional production methodologies focus on material and labour costs, while modern automated manufacturing processes need cost models that are able to consider the high impact of investments and overheads. Previous work on laser sintering costing was developed in 2003. This current work presents advances and discussions on the limits of the previous work through direct comparison. A new cost model for laser sintering is then proposed. The model leads to graph profiles that are typical for layer-manufacturing processes. The evolution of cost models and the indirect cost significance in modern costing representation is shown finally.
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