Metal components with applications across a range of industrial sectors can be manufactured by selective laser melting (SLM). A particular strength of SLM is its ability to manufacture components incorporating periodic lattice structures not realisable by conventional manufacturing processes. This enables the production of advanced, functionally graded, components. However, for these designs to be successful, the relationships between lattice geometry and performance must be established. We do so here by examining the mechanical behaviour of uniform and graded density SLM Al-Si10-Mg lattices under quasistatic loading. As-built lattices underwent brittle collapse and non-ideal deformation behaviour. The application of a microstructure-altering thermal treatment drastically improved their behaviour and their capability for energy absorption. Heat-treated graded lattices exhibited progressive layer collapse and incremental strengthening. Graded and uniform structures absorbed almost the same amount of energy prior to densification, 6.3 ± 0.2 MJ/m 3 and 5.7 ± 0.2 MJ/m 3 , respectively, but densification occurred at around 7% lower strain for the graded structures. Several characteristic properties of SLM aluminium lattices, including their effective elastic modulus and Gibson-Ashby coefficients, C 1 and α, were determined; these can form the basis of new design methodologies for superior components in the future.
A hot melt 3D inkjet printing method with the potential to manufacture formulations in complex and adaptable geometries for the controlled loading and release of medicines is presented. This first use of a precisely controlled solvent free inkjet printing to produce drug loaded solid dosage forms is demonstrated using a naturally derived FDA approved material (beeswax) as the drug carrier and fenofibrate as the drug. Tablets with bespoke geometries (honeycomb architecture) were fabricated. The honeycomb architecture was modified by control of the honeycomb cell size, and hence surface area to enable control of drug release profiles without the need to alter the formulation. Analysis of the formed tablets showed the drug to be evenly distributed within the beeswax at the bulk scale with evidence of some localization at the micron scale. An analytical model utilizing a Fickian description of diffusion was developed to allow the prediction of drug release. A comparison of experimental and predicted drug release data revealed that in addition to surface area, other factors such as the cell diameter in the case of the honeycomb geometry and material wettability must be considered in practical dosage form design. This information when combined with the range of achievable geometries could allow the bespoke production of optimized personalised medicines for a variety of delivery vehicles in addition to tablets, such as medical devices for example.
Lattice structures are regarded as excellent candidates for use in lightweight energy absorbing applications, such as crash protection. In this paper we investigate the crushing behaviour, mechanical properties and energy absorption of lattices made by an additive manufacturing (AM) process. Two types of lattice were examined; body-centred-cubic (BCC) and a reinforced variant called BCC z . The lattices were subject to compressive loads in two orthogonal directions, allowing an assessment of their mechanical anisotropy to be made. We also examined functionally graded versions of these lattices, which featured a density gradient along one direction. The graded structures exhibited distinct crushing behaviour, with a sequential collapse of cellular layers preceding full densification. For the BCC z lattice, the graded structures were able to absorb around 114% more energy per unit volume than their non-graded counterparts before full densification, 1371 ± 9 kJ/m 3 vs. 640 ± 10 kJ/m 3 . This highlights the strong potential for functionally graded lattices to be used in energy absorbing applications. Finally, we determined several of the Gibson-Ashby coefficients relating the mechanical properties of lattice structures to their density; these are crucial in establishing the constitutive models required for effective lattice design. These results improve the current understanding of AM lattices, and will enable the design of sophisticated, functional, lightweight components in the future.
. (2015) Mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V selectively laser melted parts with body-centred-cubic lattices of varying cell size. Experimental Mechanics, 55 (7). pp. 1261 -1272 . ISSN 1741 -2765 Access from the University of Nottingham repository: http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/31973/1/Accepted_manuscript.pdf
Copyright and reuse:The Nottingham ePrints service makes this work by researchers of the University of Nottingham available open access under the following conditions. This article is made available under the University of Nottingham End User licence and may be reused according to the conditions of the licence. For more details see: http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/end_user_agreement.pdf
A note on versions:The version presented here may differ from the published version or from the version of record. If you wish to cite this item you are advised to consult the publisher's version. Please see the repository url above for details on accessing the published version and note that access may require a subscription.For more information, please contact email@example.com Significant weight savings in parts can be made through the use of additive manufacture (AM), a process which enables the construction of more complex geometries, such as functionally graded lattices, than can be achieved conventionally. The existing framework describing the mechanical properties of lattices places strong emphasis on one property, the relative density of the repeating cells, but there are other properties to consider if lattices are to be used effectively. In this work, we explore the effects of cell size and number of cells, attempting to construct more complete models for the mechanical performance of lattices. This was achieved by examining the modulus and ultimate tensile strength of latticed tensile specimens with a range of unit cell sizes and fixed relative density. Understanding how these mechanical properties depend upon the lattice design variables is crucial for the development of design tools, such as finite element methods, that deliver the best performance from AM latticed parts. We observed significant reductions in modulus and strength with increasing cell size, and these reductions cannot be explained by increasing strut porosity as has previously been suggested. We obtained power law relationships for the mechanical properties of the latticed specimens as a function of cell size, which are similar in form to the existing laws for the relative density dependence. These can be used to predict the properties of latticed column structures comprised of body-centred-cubic (BCC) cells, and may also be adapted for other part geometries. In addition, we propose a novel way to analyse the tensile modulus data, which considers a relative lattice cell size rather than an absolute size. This may lead to more general models for the mechanical properties of lattice structures, applicable to parts of varying size.
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