In the past three decades, Brazil has undergone rapid changes in major social determinants of health and in the organisation of health services. In this report, we examine how these changes have affected indicators of maternal health, child health, and child nutrition. We use data from vital statistics, population censuses, demographic and health surveys, and published reports. In the past three decades, infant mortality rates have reduced substantially, decreasing by 5·5% a year in the 1980s and 1990s, and by 4·4% a year since 2000 to reach 20 deaths per 1000 livebirths in 2008. Neonatal deaths account for 68% of infant deaths. Stunting prevalence among children younger than 5 years decreased from 37% in 1974-75 to 7% in 2006-07. Regional differences in stunting and child mortality also decreased. Access to most maternal-health and child-health interventions increased sharply to almost universal coverage, and regional and socioeconomic inequalities in access to such interventions were notably reduced. The median duration of breastfeeding increased from 2·5 months in the 1970s to 14 months by 2006-07. Official statistics show stable maternal mortality ratios during the past 10 years, but modelled data indicate a yearly decrease of 4%, a trend which might not have been noticeable in official reports because of improvements in death registration and the increased number of investigations into deaths of women of reproductive age. The reasons behind Brazil's progress include: socioeconomic and demographic changes (economic growth, reduction in income disparities between the poorest and wealthiest populations, urbanisation, improved education of women, and decreased fertility rates), interventions outside the health sector (a conditional cash transfer programme and improvements in water and sanitation), vertical health programmes in the 1980s (promotion of breastfeeding, oral rehydration, and immunisations), creation of a tax-funded national health service in 1988 (coverage of which expanded to reach the poorest areas of the country through the Family Health Program in the mid-1990s); and implementation of many national and state-wide programmes to improve child health and child nutrition and, to a lesser extent, to promote women's health. Nevertheless, substantial challenges remain, including overmedicalisation of childbirth (nearly 50% of babies are delivered by caesarean section), maternal deaths caused by illegal abortions, and a high frequency of preterm deliveries.
Resumo Objetivo Descrever as mudanças nos estilos de vida, quanto ao consumo de tabaco, bebidas alcoólicas, alimentação e atividade física, no período de restrição social consequente à pandemia da COVID-19. Métodos Estudo transversal realizado com dados do inquérito ConVid sobre comportamentos em saúde. Os dados foram coletados por meio de questionário on-line autopreenchido pelos participantes. Procedimentos de pós-estratificação foram empregados para o cálculo das prevalências e intervalos de confiança de 95%. Resultados Participaram 45.161 indivíduos com 18 ou mais anos de idade. Durante o período de restrição social, foi relatada diminuição da prática de atividade física e aumento do tempo em frente a telas, da ingestão de alimentos ultraprocessados, do número de cigarros fumados e do consumo de bebidas alcóolicas. Foram observadas diferenças segundo sexo e faixa etária. Conclusão Os resultados apontam uma piora dos estilos de vida e aumento de comportamentos de risco à saúde.
The HIV/AIDS epidemic is a dynamic unstable global phenomenon, constituting a veritable mosaic of regional sub-epidemics. As a consequence of the deep inequalities that exist in Brazilian society, the spread of HIV infection has revealed an epidemic of multiple dimensions undergoing extensive epidemiological transformations. Initially restricted to large urban centers and markedly masculine, the HIV/AIDS epidemic is currently characterized by heterosexualization, feminization, interiorization and pauperization. The evolution of the profile of AIDS in Brazil is above all due to the geographical diffusion of the disease from large urban centers towards medium and small municipalities in the interior, to the increase in heterosexual transmission and the persistent growth of cases among injecting drug users. The increase in transmission through heterosexual contact has resulted in substantial growth of cases among women, which has been pointed out as the most important characteristic of the epidemic's current dynamic in Brazil.
Objective To evaluate the evolution in smoking indicators in the adult Brazilian population between 1989 and 2003. Methods We compared age-adjusted prevalence ratios and means for smoking indicators, stratified by age, sex and sociodemographic variables, obtained from two comparable household surveys that used probabilistic sampling of the Brazilian population aged > 18 years (n = 34 808 in 1989 and n = 5000 in 2003). Findings Between 1989 and 2003, there was a substantial decrease in the prevalence of smoking (from 34.8% to 22.4%; ageadjusted prevalence ratio, 0.65; 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.60-0.70) and a modest reduction in the mean number of cigarettes smoked per day (from 13.3 to 11.6; age-adjusted difference, -1.8; 95% CI, -2.6 --1.0). Reductions in the prevalence and intensity of smoking were greater among males, younger age groups and higher socioeconomic strata. Conclusion The prevalence of smoking in the adult Brazilian population declined by 35% between 1989 and 2003, or an average of 2.5% per year. This exceptional reduction surpasses those seen in other countries that implemented wide-ranging and rigorous policies for controlling smoking during the same period. The more intense decline in smoking in younger age groups was consistent with the concentration of efforts of the Brazilian tobacco control programme to prevent the onset of smoking among youths and the total prohibition of cigarette advertising. We recommend the intensification of programme initiatives targeting women and less economically favoured population strata.
This study presents an overview of public sector interventions and progress made on the women's and child health front in Brazil between 1990 and 2015. We analyzed indicators of antenatal and labor and delivery care and maternal and infant health status using data from the Live Birth Information System and Mortality Information System, national surveys, published articles, and other sources. We also outline the main women's and child health policies and intersectoral poverty reduction programs. There was a sharp fall in fertility rates; the country achieved universal access to antenatal and labor and delivery care services; access to contraception and breastfeeding improved significantly; there was a reduction in hospital admissions due to abortion and in malnutrition. The rates of congenital syphilis, caesarean sections and preterm births remain excessive. Under-five mortality decreased by more than two-thirds, but less pronounced for the neonatal component. The maternal mortality ratio decreased from 143.2 to 59.7 per 100 000 live births. Despite worsening scores or levelling off across certain health indicators, the large majority improved markedly.
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