A rapid, sensitive and reliable reverse-phase HPLC method was used for the quantitative determination of the anti-fungal and insecticide amides, dihydropiplartine (1), piplartine (2), deltaalpha,beta-dihydropiperine (3) and pellitorine (4) in plants in natura, in plantlets in vitro and ex vitro, and in callus of Piper tuberculatum. Well-resolved peaks were obtained with good detection response and linearity in the range of 15.0-3000 microg/mL. The plants in natura contained compounds 1-4, the plantlets ex vitro and in vitro accumulated compounds 1-2 and 1-4, respectively, while only amide 4 was found in callus.
Germplasm conservation of Podophyllum peltatum L. was attempted by using synthetic seed technology and media supplemented with osmotic agents. Excised buds from in vitro cultures were encapsulated in calcium alginate beads and cultured on different substrates then stored at 5, 10, and 25°C for up to 8 mo. Survival and vigor in re-growth were the parameters used to evaluate the germplasm storage conditions. Vigor in re-growth was measured by number of buds induced after storage, which was achieved on a substrate containing water solidified with 1% w/v agar under 10°C. In vitro storage of shoot cultures was also evaluated by supplementing osmotic agents, mannitol, or sorbitol to the media. Such treatment had a negative impact on post-storage re-growth (at 25°C), even though the inclusion of 2% w/v sorbitol and mannitol each to the media increased plantlet survival during 10°C storage treatment. A deleterious effect was noticed among cultures in re-growth when higher concentrations of these supplements were added to the media. Genetic stability was assessed following 8 mo of storage using a PCR-based multilocus DNA fingerprinting technique, amplified fragment-length polymorphism. No differences in the DNA fragment patterns were observed using eight primer combinations in stored clones. However, a polymorphic band was noticed in the accession that served as explant source, suggesting that the mutation has occurred prior to this study perhaps during the 9 yr of in vitro cultivation.
Uncaria tomentosa (Rubiaceae) has a recognized therapeutic potential against various diseases associated with oxidative stress. The aim of this research was to evaluate the antioxidant potential of an aqueous leaf extract (ALE) from U. tomentosa, and its major alkaloids mitraphylline and isomitraphylline. The antioxidant activity of ALE was investigated in vitro using standard assays (DPPH, ABTS and FRAP), while the in vivo activity and mode of action were studied using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism. The purified alkaloids did not exhibit antioxidant effects in vivo. ALE reduced the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in wild-type worms, and was able to rescue the worms from a lethal dose of the pro-oxidant juglone. The ALE treatment led to a decreased expression of the oxidative stress response related genes sod-3, gst-4, and hsp-16.2. The treatment of mutant worms lacking the DAF-16 transcription factor with ALE resulted in a significant reduction of ROS levels. Contrarily, the extract had a pro-oxidant effect in the worms lacking the SKN-1 transcription factor. Our results suggest that the antioxidant activity of ALE in C. elegans is independent of its alkaloid content, and that SKN-1 is required for ALE-mediated stress resistance.
In order to produce explants of Mandevilla illustris (Vell) Woodson for the "Cerrado in vitro", the Germplasm Bank of UNAERP, we carried out a micropropagation protocol using MS or MS/3 medium supplemented with different concentrations of 6-benzyladeninepurine (BA), Zeatin or 2-isopentenyladenine for nodal segment growth, and alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid, indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) or 1,4 dithiothreitol for rooting. For nodal segments, all the cytokinins tested yielded similar results. However, 2.22 micro M BA is more economical to use. MS/3 medium supplemented with 0.49 micro M IBA was the most appropriate medium for rooting, resulting in 29% rooted explants. The crude aqueous extract from the subterranean system (SS) of M. illustris was assayed for its inhibitory action on the enzymatic activity of Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom, isolated basic phospholipase A2 (CB) and crotoxin. It totally inhibited the phospholipase activity of crude Cdt venom and CB toxin and inhibited the phospholipase activity of crotoxin by 49%. The toxic action of both the crude venom and crotoxin was partially inhibited-there was a prolonged survival time and a 40.0% decrease in lethality.
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