BACTERIAL PATHOGENICITY AND CHARACTERISATIONEn t ero pat h og en i ci ty m a r kers i n Escrt erichia coli isolated from infants with acute diarrhoea and healthy controls in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Sa'o Paulo, Brazil Faeces from urban children < 2 years old with acute diarrhoeal illness and from nondiarrhoeal infants (controls) were examined for Escherichia coli and other enteropathogens. A total of 990 E. coli isolates from 100 patients and 50 controls was tested for enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) serotype (O:H), adherence to HEp-2 cells after incubation for 3 and 6 h, fluorescent actin staining (FAS), DNA hybridisation with EAF, eaeA, STh, STp and EAggEC probes and production of heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) and verocytotoxin (VT) with Y1 and Vero cells. EPEC were the most prevalent enteropathogens in patients (32.7%; and 14% in controls). Enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) and Vero cytotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC) were not detected. The rate of isolation of enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) was identical in both groups. Among the EPEC isolates the prevalent serotypes were Olll:H2, 055:NM and 01 19:H6. Localised adherence (LA) was found significantly more frequently in isolates from patients (19.6%) than controls (2.1%). All LA-positive EPEC isolates were FASf and eaeAf, but only 75.2% of them hybridised with the EAF probe. Diffusely adhering E. coli (DAEC) and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAggEC) were found with equal frequency in patients and controls. Twenty-seven E. coli isolates were negative for EAF but positive for eaeA and FAS and produced LA in 6-h adherence tests. These EAF-/eaeA+ strains were the only putative enteropathogen identified in seven patients and were not found in controls. The ability of these strains to elicit ultrastructural cell alterations and cell-signalling events was evaluated in Caco-2 cells (human colon carcinoma cell line) by the gentamicin invasion assay and by transmission electron microscopy. The numbers of intracellular bacteria in cell invasion tests varied from 0.4% to 1.6% of the cellassociated bacteria after a 6-h incubation period. Tyrosine phosphorylation of host cell proteins was assessed in HEp-2 cells by immunofluorescence microscopy and all strains gave positive results. EAF-/eaeA+ E. coli strains express most of the virulence properties found among true EPEC strains and can be a relevant cause of infant diarrhoea in developing countries.
There is an increasing demand for inexpensive and safe anesthetics that can reduce fish stress caused by some procedures such as capture and handling. In this context, the present study evaluated the potential of essential oils (EO) of three Brazilian native plants (Hesperozygis ringens, Lippia sidoides and Ocotea acutifolia) as anesthetics for the silver catfish - Rhamdia quelen. Moreover, an analysis was made of the chemical composition of these oils and their influence on stress parameter. EO of H. ringens and O. acutifolia were effective as anesthetics, without behavioral side effects. EO of O. acutifolia (150 µL L-1) promoted an increase in blood glucose level. Regarding to the composition, pulegone accounts for 96.63% of the EO of H. ringens, and caryophyllene oxide amounts to 56.90% of the EO of O. acutifolia. Two chemotypes, thymol and carvacrol (68.40% and 67.89%, respectively) were verified for EO of L. sidoides. Both samples of EO of L. sidoides showed anesthetic activity in silver catfish, but exposure also caused loss of mucus and mortality. Thus, only the EO of H. ringens and O. acutifolia are advised for anesthetic use
One new erythrinian alkaloid derivative, (+)-11alpha-hydroxyerythravine (1), and the known (+)-erythravine (2) and (+)-alpha-hydroxyerysotrine (3) were isolated from the flowers of Erythrina mulungu. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic/spectrometric data interpretation of 1H, 13C, and 2D NMR and MS experiments. The relative configuration was established by NOESY analysis, while the conformation adopted by these molecules was evaluated through molecular modeling studies and coupling constants obtained by NMR analysis. Furthermore, the anxiolytic effects of the E. mulungu aqueous alcoholic crude extract and of the purified alkaloids were evaluated using the elevated T-maze test.
We investigated the effect of acute oral treatment with a water-alcohol extract of the inflorescence of Erythrina mulungu (EM, LeguminosaePapilionaceae) (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) on rats submitted to different anxiety models: the elevated T-maze (for inhibitory avoidance and escape measurements), the light/dark transition, and the cat odor test. These models were selected for their presumed capacity to demonstrate specific subtypes of anxiety disorders as recognized in clinical practice. Treatment with 200 mg/kg EM impaired avoidance latencies (avoidance 1 -200 mg/kg EM: 18 ± 7 s, control group: 40 ± 9 s; avoidance 2 -200 mg/kg EM: 15 ± 4 s, control group: 110.33 ± 38 s) in a way similar to the reference drug diazepam (avoidance 1: 3 ± 0.79 s; avoidance 2: 3 ± 0.76 s), without altering escape. Additionally, the same treatments increased the number of transitions (200 mg/kg EM: 6.33 ± 0.90, diazepam: 10 ± 1.54, control group: 2.78 ± 0.60) between the two compartments and the time spent in the lighted compartment in the light/dark transition model (200 mg/kg EM: 39 ± 7 s; diazepam: 61 ± 9 s; control group: 14 ± 4 s). The dose of 400 mg/kg EM also increased this last measurement (38 ± 8 s). These results were not due to motor alterations since no significant effects were detected in the number of crossings or rearings in the arena. Furthermore, neither EM nor diazepam altered the behavioral responses of rats to a cloth impregnated with cat odor. These observations suggest that EM exerts anxiolytic-like effects on a specific subset of defensive behaviors, particularly those that have been shown to be sensitive to low doses of benzodiazepines.
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