Many substances of plant origin are extracted for use in the primary treatment of domestic wastewater. In most cases, they are used as coagulating and flocculating agents and are derived from seeds, leaves, bark or sap, roots, and fruits of trees and plants. In this research, the use of Cassia fistula seed was evaluated for the removal of turbidity and color in domestic wastewater from a pumping station in the city of Cartagena (Colombia). The optimal dose of C. fistula seed powder was determined by jar test using an E&Q F6-300 digital flocculator. Physicochemical parameters such as turbidity and color were determined, following the recommendations of APHA (Standard Methods for Water and Wastewater), expressing the results in UNT (Total Nephelometric Units) for turbidity, and UPt-Co (Platinum-Cobalt Units) for the color. The results obtained show that with a dose of 160 mgL-1 of the coagulant extracted from the C. fistula seed, a value of 34.14 NTU is reached for removal of 62.18% with respect to the initial turbidity value. The color decreases reaching a minimum value of 88.59 UPC for removal of 64%, at a dose of 160 mgL-1 of natural coagulant. The seed C. fistula exhibited good coagulating properties at low doses and can be an important alternative for the removal of color and turbidity in wastewater. Keywords: color, removal, turbidity, water treatment.
Coagulants can be extracted from vegetal material and applied in the treatment of wastewater. These coagulants are derived from seeds, leaves, bark, roots and fruits. This study focuses on the use of the mucilaginous extract of Stenocereus griseus (known as Cardón Guajiro) for removal of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total solids, turbidity and color in domestic wastewater from a pumping station in the city of Cartagena (Colombia). The optimal dose of S. griseus extract was determined by a pitcher test employing an E&Q F6-300 digital flocculator. All physicochemical tests were carried out following the specifications of the standard methods for wastewater (APHA). When 1400 mgL-1 of natural coagulants were used in the sewage treatment, the turbidity obtained was 29.57 TNU, representing removal of 67.24%, considering the initial turbidity. This parameter decreases until 68.61 PCU, for a 72.12% removal at the same coagulant dosage regarding the color. It must be noted that significant statistical differences were found between all tested doses of the coagulant. The mucilaginous extract of S. griseus exhibited useful properties in the primary treatment of domestic wastewater.
This study evaluated the effect of HS extracted from mineral coal on the growth of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and melon (Cucumis melo) plants to determine the role that humic substances (HS) play as promoters of plant growth. Three concentrations of HS were evaluated in 200 grams of soil. The fertilizer (urea 0.3%) and humic acid in concentrations of 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.2% were added directly and at the same time to the amount of soil, using a control sample without the addition of humic acid. Increase measurements were made at three-day intervals up to 45 days. Plants treated with high concentrations of HS demonstrated a significant increase in roots (p>0.05). In both plants, the concentration of 0.2% in HS showed the greatest increase in growth, with the melon plant showing the greatest variation as time passed, with its highest peak in 36 days (13.1 ± 0.05cm) of the experiment, while in the tomato plant the maximum growth occurred in 30 days (9.2 ± 0.01 cm). The Dunnett test showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the control and the concentrations of 0.05% and 0.1% (p>0.05), while among the control and the soil sample with a concentration of 0.2% there was a statistically significant difference (p<0.05). The results show a notable influence of humic acid on the growth of the studied plants, especially at high concentrations. Keywords: fertilizer, horticulture, humic acid, soils.
This study focuses on the development of a secondary model for Yarrowia lipolytica in a sewage treatment process. The raw data of Y. lipolytica growth were adjusted to the Buchanan model in order to obtain growth parameters such as initial count cells (Y0), maximum specific growth rate (μmax), latency phase (λ) and maximum cell population (Ymax). The µ values obtained at different pH levels (5.0 to 8.0) were used to build the secondary model based on a linear equation. The results showed a significant effect of pH on µmax values. The validation process of the developed models displays accuracy (Af) and bias factor (Bf) values close to one, while the values of root mean square error (RMSE) were low, confirming that such models can predict the growth of Y. lipolytica in dairy wastewater. This can be interesting to optimize sewage treatments that involve this kind of microorganism. Moreover, the dairy wastewater was a good substrate to support the Yarrowia lipolytica's growth and could be used to produce enzymes.
El pez sable (Trichiurus lepturus) es un pescado semigraso, con un contenido importante de proteínas, minerales y diferentes vitaminas. El objetivo del presente estudio fue elaborar y evaluar las características fisicoquímicas, microbiológicas, sensoriales y de textura de una salchicha a partir de carne de sable (Trichiurus lepturus), con aceite de oliva como fuente de omega 3. La composición proximal se determinó siguiendo los métodos de la AOAC (2012). Las características microbiológicas se determinaron según las Normas Técnicas Colombianas 4458. La aceptabilidad fue evaluada mediante un panel de jueces no entrenados, utilizando una escala hedónica de 4 descriptores (sabor, color, olor y textura). Se ensayaron tres formulaciones identificadas como (F1), (F2), (F3) y una muestra de control. Se observaron diferencias significativas (p<0,05) entre F2 y F3 con respecto a F1. El mayor contenido de ácidos poliinsaturado (EPA) se observó en la formulación F3, de la misma manera ocurrió para el contenido nutricional y las propiedades sensorial. El contenido proximal fue 15,07% de proteínas, 5,26% de grasa y 10,37% de carbohidrato para F3. En cuanto a la característica de dureza fue mayor que en las formulaciones F1 y F2. Las salchichas presentaron buena calidad microbiológica y sensorial. Estos valores cumplen con los estándares requeridos por el Codex Alimentarius, de manera que, el producto obtenido se puede considerar como una nueva alternativa para incluir en la dieta humana.
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