The importance of metabolic syndrome (MetS) lies in its associated risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, as well as other harmful conditions such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In this report, the available scientific evidence on the associations between lifestyle changes and MetS and its components is reviewed to derive recommendations for MetS prevention and management. Weight loss through an energy-restricted diet together with increased energy expenditure through physical activity contribute to the prevention and treatment of MetS. A Mediterranean-type diet, with or without energy restriction, is an effective treatment component. This dietary pattern should be built upon an increased intake of unsaturated fat, primarily from olive oil, and emphasize the consumption of legumes, cereals (whole grains), fruits, vegetables, nuts, fish, and low-fat dairy products, as well as moderate consumption of alcohol. Other dietary patterns (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, new Nordic, and vegetarian diets) have also been proposed as alternatives for preventing MetS. Quitting smoking and reducing intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and meat and meat products are mandatory. Nevertheless, there are inconsistencies and gaps in the evidence, and additional research is needed to define the most appropriate therapies for MetS. In conclusion, a healthy lifestyle is critical to prevent or delay the onset of MetS in susceptible individuals and to prevent cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes in those with existing MetS. The recommendations provided in this article should help patients and clinicians understand and implement the most effective approaches for lifestyle change to prevent MetS and improve cardiometabolic health.
The relationship between obesity and other metabolic diseases have been deeply studied. However, there are clinical inconsistencies, exceptions to the paradigm of “more fat means more metabolic disease”, and the subjects in this condition are referred to as metabolically healthy obese (MHO).They have long-standing obesity and morbid obesity but can be considered healthy despite their high degree of obesity. We describe the variable definitions of MHO, the underlying mechanisms that can explain the existence of this phenotype caused by greater adipose tissue inflammation or the different capacity for adipose tissue expansion and functionality apart from other unknown mechanisms. We analyze whether these subjects improve after an intervention (traditional lifestyle recommendations or bariatric surgery) or if they stay healthy as the years pass. MHO is common among the obese population and constitutes a unique subset of characteristics that reduce metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors despite the presence of excessive fat mass. The protective factors that grant a healthier profile to individuals with MHO are being elucidated.
Metabolomic studies aimed to dissect the connection between the development of type 2 diabetes and obesity are still scarce. In the present study, fasting serum from sixty-four adult individuals classified into four sex-matched groups by their BMI [non-obese versus morbid obese] and the increased risk of developing diabetes [prediabetic insulin resistant state versus non-prediabetic non-insulin resistant] was analyzed by LC- and FIA-ESI-MS/MS-driven metabolomic approaches. Altered levels of [lyso]glycerophospholipids was the most specific metabolic trait associated to morbid obesity, particularly lysophosphatidylcholines acylated with margaric, oleic and linoleic acids [lysoPC C17:0: R=-0.56, p=0.0003; lysoPC C18:1: R=-0.61, p=0.0001; lysoPC C18:2 R=-0.64, p<0.0001]. Several amino acids were biomarkers of risk of diabetes onset associated to obesity. For instance, glutamate significantly associated with fasting insulin [R=0.5, p=0.0019] and HOMA-IR [R=0.46, p=0.0072], while glycine showed negative associations [fasting insulin: R=-0.51, p=0.0017; HOMA-IR: R=-0.49, p=0.0033], and the branched chain amino acid valine associated to prediabetes and insulin resistance in a BMI-independent manner [fasting insulin: R=0.37, p=0.0479; HOMA-IR: R=0.37, p=0.0468]. Minority sphingolipids including specific [dihydro]ceramides and sphingomyelins also associated with the prediabetic insulin resistant state, hence deserving attention as potential targets for early diagnosis or therapeutic intervention.
25(OH)D levels are diminished in P&D compared to NG subjects, independently of BMI, and are closely related to glucose metabolism variables, suggesting that vitamin D deficiency is associated more with carbohydrate metabolism than with obesity. Moreover, AT has a different response to 1,25(OH)2D3 depending on the degree of obesity.
OBJECTIVEHyperglycemia may increase mortality in patients who receive total parenteral nutrition (TPN). However, this has not been well studied in noncritically ill patients (i.e., patients in the nonintensive care unit setting). The aim of this study was to determine whether mean blood glucose level during TPN infusion is associated with increased mortality in noncritically ill hospitalized patients.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSThis prospective multicenter study involved 19 Spanish hospitals. Noncritically ill patients who were prescribed TPN were included prospectively, and data were collected on demographic, clinical, and laboratory variables as well as on in-hospital mortality.RESULTSThe study included 605 patients (mean age 63.2 ± 15.7 years). The daily mean TPN values were 1.630 ± 323 kcal, 3.2 ± 0.7 g carbohydrates/kg, 1.26 ± 0.3 g amino acids/kg, and 0.9 ± 0.2 g lipids/kg. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the patients who had mean blood glucose levels >180 mg/dL during the TPN infusion had a risk of mortality that was 5.6 times greater than those with mean blood glucose levels <140 mg/dL (95% CI 1.47–21.4 mg/dL) after adjusting for age, sex, nutritional state, presence of diabetes or hyperglycemia before starting TPN, diagnosis, prior comorbidity, carbohydrates infused, use of steroid therapy, SD of blood glucose level, insulin units supplied, infectious complications, albumin, C-reactive protein, and HbA1c levels.CONCLUSIONSHyperglycemia (mean blood glucose level >180 mg/dL) in noncritically ill patients who receive TPN is associated with a higher risk of in-hospital mortality.
Changes in the intestinal microbial community and some metabolic disturbances, including obesity and type2 diabetes, are related. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) regulates glucose homeostasis. Microbiota have been linked to incretin secretion. Antibiotic use causes changes in microbial diversity and composition. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between microbiota changes and GLP-1 secretion. A prospective case-control study with a Helicobacter pylori-positive patient model involving subjects under eradication therapy (omeprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin). Forty patients with H. pylori infection and 20 matched participants, but negative for H. pylori antigen. Patients were evaluated before and two months after treatment. We analyzed anthropometric measurements, carbohydrate metabolism, lipid profile, and C-reactive protein. Gut microbiota composition was analyzed through 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing (IlluminaMiSeq). Eradication treatment for H. pylori decreased bacterial richness (Chao1, p = 0.041). Changes in gut microbiota profiles were observed at phylum, family, genus and species levels. GLP-1 secretion and variables of carbohydrate metabolism were improved. Correlations were seen between GLP-1 changes and variations within microbial community abundances, specifically Bifidobacterium adolescentis, the Lachnobacterium genus, and Coriobacteriaceae family. A conventional treatment to eradicate H. pylori could improve carbohydrate metabolism possibly in relation with an increase in GLP-1 secretion. GLP-1 secretion may be related to alterations in intestinal microbiota, specifically Lachnobacterium, B. adolescentis and Coriobacteriaceae.
The relationship between vitamin D status, calcium intake and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a topic of growing interest. One of the most interesting non-skeletal functions of vitamin D is its potential role in glucose homeostasis. This possible association is related to the secretion of insulin by pancreatic beta cells, insulin resistance in different tissues and its influence on systemic inflammation. However, despite multiple observational studies and several meta-analyses that have shown a positive association between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and the risk of T2D, no randomized clinical trials supplementing with different doses of vitamin D have confirmed this hypothesis definitively. An important question is the identification of what 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are necessary to influence glycemic homeostasis and the risk of developing T2D. These values of vitamin D can be significantly higher than vitamin D levels required for bone health, but the currently available data do not allow us to answer this question adequately. Furthermore, a large number of observational studies show that dairy consumption is linked to a lower risk of T2D, but the components responsible for this relationship are not well established. Therefore, the importance of calcium intake in the risk of developing T2D has not yet been established. Although there is a biological plausibility linking the status of vitamin D and calcium intake with the risk of T2D, well-designed randomized clinical trials are necessary to answer this important question.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2024 scite LLC. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers
Part of the Research Solutions Family.