Seasonal changes in the weight, diameter, length and histological details of the oviduct were studied in adult Rana cyanophlyctis during the annual reproductive cycle. There are a pair of oviducts in this frog and each one was externally divisible into three segments, i.e., pars recta, pars convoluta and pars uterus. Histologically, the oviduct was composed of outer serosa/peritonial epithelium, middle connective tissue layer (which was very much reduced in thickness) and inner luminal epithelial lining. In the pars recta region, the inner epithelial cells formed longitudinal folds while, in the pars convoluta and pars uterus segments, the epithelial cells differentiated into gland cells and ciliated cells. There was a seasonal variation in the weight, length, diameter of different segments of the oviduct and in the height of the inner epithelial cell lining during the annual cycle. All these parameters were minimum in January (late post-breeding regression phase of reproductive cycle), increased up to September (breeding phase) and then declined following spawning activity. The results suggest that in R. cyalwphlyctis, the oviduct undergoes annual variation both in morphology and histological details that depict the functional status of the organ.
Beta-aryl keto hexanoic acids (5a-l) were synthesized efficiently, followed by esterification that afforded beta-aryl keto methylhexanoates (6a-l). The chemo-selective ketoxime beta-aryl methyl hexanoates (7a-l) were isolated in good yields. Spectroscopic methods were used to characterize the obtained moieties. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial properties of the effectively synthesized compounds 7a-l were also investigated. The anti-inflammatory activity of the compounds 7c, 7f, 7i, and 7l was excellent, with a low IC50 value at micromolar concentration, which was much better than the reference diclofenac. All synthesized compounds 7a-l were assessed for their in vitro antibacterial activity against S. aureus, B. subtilis and E. coli. Most of the compounds exhibited promising activity against Gram-positive bacterial strain, compound 7i showed excellent activity compared to standard streptomycin and in the case of E. coli, compounds 7b, 7c, 7j, 7k and 7l have shown moderate activity. Further, the cytotoxic activities of the compounds were assessed against lung cancer cells (A549) by using MTT assay. The possible interaction mechanism of the molecules 7c and 7g with Gram-negative strain E. coli DNA gyrase B in complex with PDB ID: 4DUH was studied.
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