Nanotechnology is on the threshold of providing a host of new materials and approaches, revolutionizing the medical and pharmaceutical fields. Several areas of medical care are already profiting from the advantage that nanotechnology offers. Recently, silver nanoparticles are attracting interest for a clinical application because of its potential biological properties such as antibacterial activity, anti-inflammatory effects, and wound healing efficacy, which could be exploited in developing better dressings for wounds and ulcers. This article reviews the role of silver nanoparticles in wound healing.
To achieve the desired therapeutic objective, the drug product must deliver the active drug at an optimal rate and amount. By proper biopharmaceutic design, the rate and extent of drug absorption (also called as bioavailability) or the systemic delivery of drugs to the body can be varied from rapid and complete absorption to slow and sustained absorption depending upon the desired therapeutic objective. Phytomedicine have served as the foundation for a larger fraction of the current pharmacopeia. But the delivery of phytomedicine is always problematic due to poor aqueous solubility, poor permeation, low systemic availability, instability and extensive first pass metabolism. Current review will discuss in detail about how nanotechnology can enhance the bioavilability and bioactivity of the phytomedicine.
The objective of this study was to determine the magnitude of nonadherence and its contributing factors among diabetic patients attending the diabetic clinic in Adama Hospital. Methods. This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among patients with diabetes mellitus attending the diabetes mellitus clinic of Adama Referral Hospital. Every other patient was selected and data regarding their medication adherence was collected using a structured interview. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS-16. Result. The response rate from this study was 98.3%. A total of 270 patients were interviewed; 51.5% were males. A total of 68.1% of the patients included in the study were married. 14% were younger than 40 years, and 50% were between 40 and 60 years. 21.8% of the participants ascribed their nonadherence to forgetting to take their medications. Patients with duration of diabetes ≤5 years (82.07%) were more compliant to their medication than those with >5 years (60.8%), which was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.003). Insulin, 47%, and glibenclamide plus metformin, 43.7%, were the most commonly prescribed mono- and combination therapies, respectively. Common comorbid conditions include hypertension, 148 (54.82%), and visual impairment, 89 (32.96%). The proportion of male patients adherent to their antidiabetic medications was found to be lower than 69.78% compared to the female patients (74.81%), but the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Conclusion. Most diabetic patients are currently being managed with the most effective available drugs. However the result from this study indicates that the desired blood sugar level could not be controlled and maintained adequately. This was because of poor adherence to the prescribed drug regimen and poor knowledge and practice of successful self-management.
This paper provides a general review on principle of chemiluminescent reactions and their recent applications in drug analysis. The structural requirements for chemiluminescent reactions and the different factors that affect the efficiency of analysis are included in the review. Chemiluminescence application in immunoassay is the new version for this review. Practical considerations are not included in the review since the main interest is to state, through the aforementioned applications, that chemiluminescence has been, is, and will be a versatile tool for pharmaceutical analysis in future years.
Objectives Drug dispensers should provide appropriate, understandable and relevant information to patient about their medication. But poor communication between patient and pharmacist carries potential adverse clinical consequences. Patients with inadequate literacy and/or health literacy skills are the most likely to have difficulties in understanding proper drug use. Our study is intended to assess the extent of pharmacist-patient communication barriers in dispensing. . The survey data were collected both from pharmacists and patients through questionnaire and interview, respectively, and analysed manually by a data master sheet. Key findings A total of 345 outpatients who were collecting their medication from the Outpatient Department pharmacy and nine pharmacists were included in the study. 11.11% pharmacists utilised pictorial aid to their oral counselling. 77.78% of pharmacists can communicate in three languages (Amharic, Oromiffa and English). 20.87% of patients were geriatrics, 30.73% were illiterate and 34.20% were in low literacy. Misunderstanding of drug dose and frequency among illiterate and low literacy geriatric patients was 46.88%. 22.22% of geriatrics revisited the hospital for re-treatment of the same condition. Conclusions Counselling on dispensing is a fundamental step to enhance the patients' rational use of medicine. When patients' health is concerned, pharmacists should try their best to enhance the patient's understanding about medication use.
Pharmacist-patient communication barriers in dispensing practiceTeshale Etiso Wado et al.
ObjectiveMany medications have potential interactions with other drugs or substances when prescribed together. This study was intended to investigate the extent of poly-pharmacy, event of drug–drug interactions and associated ADRs in Adama Referral Hospital, Oromia regional State, Ethiopia to create awareness of potential drug interactions and for development of clinical strategies to prevent the occurrence of DDIs.MethodsA retrospective study was done at Adama Referral hospital, Adama city, Ethiopia during March–May 2014. Medscape online were used for DDIs and ADRs detection purposes.ResultsThe average number of drugs prescribed per person (encounter) in this study was found to be 2.6, showing the presence of poly-pharmacy prescribing practice based on WHO recommendations (1.4–2.4). With 788 medications prescribed, 267 DDIs were found in this study and 62 (20.7%) were categorized as serious DDIs, 95 (31.7%) as significant DDIs, and 110 (36.7%) as minor DDIs. DDIs occurrence was also categorized according to the mechanisms, Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions; the highest frequency of DDIs was observed in 85 (31.8%), attributable to metabolism interaction followed by Antagonistic effect in 51 (21.4%), and Synergistic/Additive effect in 44 (16.5%). It was observed that serious DDIs most often caused possible cardiovascular ADRs.ConclusionsThe results of the study showed the high number of drugs per person compared to the WHO-reported average number of drugs per person and occurrence of DDIs associated with severe cardiovascular risk ADRs in the Adama Referral Hospital. This study recommends that the drug information center facilities and drug prescription validation is done by the pharmacist and the development of pharmacotherapeutic guidelines supporting selection of drugs in Ethiopian hospitals for preventing DDIs and ADRs.
Background Irrational use of this drug leads to emergence of resistant bacteria and also leads to infections that are worse than the original diagnosed ones. Important concern is the uncertainty of administered antibiotics about whether the quality of a generic medicine is equal to brand name drug; if both brand/generic are bioequivalent, then antibiotic selection should be based on the cost of therapy. Methods The efficacy of seven ceftriaxone brands available at Ambo, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia, was evaluated by microwell plate diffusion technique against four different bacteria. Results All brands of two concentrations were showed sufficient inhibitory activity against four microorganisms, so they should all be considered as bioequivalence. Among all brands tested, B6 showed higher activity against Escherichia coli American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 10536, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29737 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 25619, and B1 showed higher activity against Salmonella typhi ATCC 06775. Interestingly, the concentration C2 (50 μg/ml) of B1-B7 showed equivalent zone of inhibition to that of the standard.
ConclusionWe conclude that performance of tested ceftriaxone injectable products were equivalent to the standard. We recommend that the physicians may select the ceftriaxone brand which is low cost in order to reduce the cost of treatment.
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