Tyrosinase, also known as polyphenol oxidase, is a copper-containing enzyme, which is widely distributed in microorganisms, animals, and plants. Nowadays mushroom tyrosinase has become popular because it is readily available and useful in a number of applications. This work presents a study on the importance of tyrosinase, especially that derived from mushroom, and describes its biochemical character and inhibition and activation by the various chemicals obtained from natural and synthetic origins with its clinical and industrial importance in the recent prospects.
Problem statement: Glycosidase inhibitors are vital sources for the treatment of diabetes type II with a special importance in pharmacology, food industry and biotechnology, since for diabetes control, different diets and drugs, especially herbal medicines are recommended in this era. Approach: While screening for the potent natural glycosidase inhibitors, we found the fruits of Chaenomeles sinensis (C. sinensis), as the most effective glycosidase inhibitor. The crude 80% methanolic extract of the fruits and its n-hexane, methylene chloride, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions were further investigated for α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase, α-galactosidase and β-galactosidase enzyme inhibition activities. Results: All the C. sinensis extracts showed remarkable α-glucosidase and β-glucosidase inhibitory activities (at a concentration of 5 µg 210 µL reaction −1 ) ranging from 82-99and 5-85%, respectively. Among all the inhibition studies, n-butanol fraction demonstrated the highest (99%) α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, whereas minor α-galactosidase (18-35%) and β-galactosidase (10-34%) inhibitions were examined in all the fractions of C. sinensis. Conclusion: C. sinensis fruits may prove as potent natural anti-diabetic source with noteworthy α-glucosidase and β-glucosidase inhibitions, because the inhibition of these enzymes provide a strong biochemical basis for the management of type II diabetes by controlling glucose absorption. These results provide intense rationale for further animal and clinical studies.
The inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase by methanolic extract of Dictyophora indusiata was evaluated and the bioactive component was characterized and identified as 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furfural (HMF) by chromatographic and spectroscopic means. Kinetic studies revealed it to be a noncompetitive inhibitor for the oxidation of L-DOPA. On the basis of these findings some related analogues were also tested for their anti-tyrosinase activity, in order to gain more insight into structure and activity relationship among these heterocyclic compounds.
The design and development of the fluorescence reporting molecules for the trace recognition of the metallic ions in the aqueous, mixed organic aqueous media, environmental specimen, living things e.g., body fluids, serum, urine etc is the evergreen research area. Among several methodologies utilized for these purposes, the fluorescent techniques have wonderful impact in the era of metal sensor development due to their acclamatory features of non-invasive detection process and appreciable sensitivity. The utilization of small organic molecules for the sensation of metallic ions through the fluorescent techniques harvested the wonderful results having some interesting features of chromogenic response on metal binding, robustness in the preparation and applicability to establish the metallic accumulation level inside the live cells via bioimaging studies. The detailed knowledge and background about the several reported chemosening strategies have the utmost importance in order to understand or to design the novel molecules for metal sensing purposes. The objective of the presents review was to compile the best ever used copper sensing strategies via fluorescent means in the running decade. We have summarized the values of optical positions of the spectral lines, spectral shifting upon metal binding, binding/association/dissociation constants, chromogenic changes in the reaction mixture, proposed complexation mechanism of the ligand with the copper, ligand sensitivities toward the copper recognition, binding stoichiometries and the detailed bioimaging results where applicable.
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