There is fast growing research on designing and improving the metal recognition methodologies in the ecosystems and biological media. The fluorescent based techniques proved a mile stones for non-invasive metal sensation and quantification in the multichannel environment. Metals as the natural components of Earth's crust are generally present in trace concentrations in the environmental samples where the humic substances have complexation affinity toward them. Iron, zinc and copper are the 1 st , 2 nd and 3 rd adequate elements indispensable to the body in trace playing the crucial roles in many biological processes. However, the unregulated amounts either as excess or deficient may exacerbate deterioration to the vital organs and triggered the progression of complications. Beside these three essential elements, mercury is widely considered to be one of the most hazardous pollutants and highly dangerous elements due to its recognized accumulative and toxic characters in the environment and the ecosystem. In the current scenario, we have tried to summarize the maximum amount of recently developed fluorescent signaling materials for the Cu 2+ , Fe 2+ / Fe 3+ , Zn 2+ and Hg 2+ . The spectral shifting in the molecules on metal chelation, mode of complexation and stoichiometries of resulting adducts have been discussed in detail. Furthermore, the molecules which have been reported as intracellular metal detector via bioimaging are specifically highlighted that might be useful for the design and development of cell viable and membrane permeable molecular probes in the future perspective.
Due to the deleterious effects of mercury on human health and natural ecosystems, high reactivity, non-degradability, extreme volatility and relative water and tissue solubility, it would consider as one of the most toxic environmental pollutants among the transition metals. In the present investigation, we have tried to summarized the several organic material based fluorescent sensor including rhodamine, boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPYs), thiourea, crown-ether, coumarine, squaraines, pyrene, imidazole, triazole, anthracene, dansyl, naphthalenedimide/ naphthalene/ naphthalimide, naphthyridine, iridium (III) complexes, polymeric materials, cyclodextrin, phthalic anhydride, indole, calix arene, chromenone, 1,8-naphthalimides, lysine, styrylindolium, phenothiazine, thiocarbonyl quinacridone, oxadiazole, triphenylamine-triazines, tetraphenylethene, peptidyl and semicarbazone for the trace mercury detection in the aqueous, aqueous-organic and cellular media. The present review provides a brief look over the previous development in the organic material based fluorescent sensor for mercuric ion detection. Furthermore, the ligand-metal binding stoichiometry, binding/association/dissociation constants and the detection limit by the receptors have been particularly highlighted which might be useful for the future design and development of more sensitive and robust fluorescent chemosensor/chemodosimeter for the mercuric ion detection. Graphical Abstract Dummy.
The design and development of the fluorescence reporting molecules for the trace recognition of the metallic ions in the aqueous, mixed organic aqueous media, environmental specimen, living things e.g., body fluids, serum, urine etc is the evergreen research area. Among several methodologies utilized for these purposes, the fluorescent techniques have wonderful impact in the era of metal sensor development due to their acclamatory features of non-invasive detection process and appreciable sensitivity. The utilization of small organic molecules for the sensation of metallic ions through the fluorescent techniques harvested the wonderful results having some interesting features of chromogenic response on metal binding, robustness in the preparation and applicability to establish the metallic accumulation level inside the live cells via bioimaging studies. The detailed knowledge and background about the several reported chemosening strategies have the utmost importance in order to understand or to design the novel molecules for metal sensing purposes. The objective of the presents review was to compile the best ever used copper sensing strategies via fluorescent means in the running decade. We have summarized the values of optical positions of the spectral lines, spectral shifting upon metal binding, binding/association/dissociation constants, chromogenic changes in the reaction mixture, proposed complexation mechanism of the ligand with the copper, ligand sensitivities toward the copper recognition, binding stoichiometries and the detailed bioimaging results where applicable.
Uma nova série de 4-amino-5-aril-3H-1,2,4-triazol-3-tionas, tendo vários grupos metoxibenzila e metoxifenila, foi sintetizada através de refluxo de sais de hidrazina carboditioato de potássio em solução aquosa diluída de hidrato de hidrazina. Estes sais foram formados pela reação de hidrazinas ácidas e dissulfeto de carbono em solução de hidróxido de potássio metanólico a 0-5 °C. 4-Amino-5-aril-3H-1,2,4-triazol-3-tionas foram condensadas com diferentes ácidos aromáticos substituídos para produzir 1,2,4-triazol[3,4-b]1,3,4-tiodiazols 3,6-disubstituídos. As estruturas dos compostos sintetizados foram caracterizadas pelas espectroscopias no infravermelho (IR) e ressonância magnética nuclear (NMR) de 1 H e 13 C, análise elementar e espectrometria de massa (MS). Todos os compostos sintetizados foram examinados com relação as suas atividades de inibição de urease, antioxidante e antibacteriana. Alguns compostos mostraram excelente atividade de inibição de urease, mais do que a droga padrão. Outros compostos apresentaram potente atividade antioxidante. Todos os compostos mostraram atividades antibacterianas significativas em comparação com a droga padrão. A new series of 4-amino-5-aryl-3H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiones, bearing various methoxybenzyl-and methoxyphenethyl groups, was synthesized by refluxing potassium hydrazinecarbodithioate salts in dilute aqueous solution of hydrazine hydrate. These salts were formed by the reaction of acid hydrazides and carbon disulfide in methanolic potassium hydroxide solution at 0-5 °C. 4-Amino-5-aryl-3H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiones were condensed with different substituted aromatic acids to yield 3,6-disubstituted-1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b]1,3,4-thiadiazoles. The structures of the synthesized compounds were characterized by infrared (IR), 1 H and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), elemental analysis and mass spectrometric (MS) studies. All the synthesized compounds were screened for their urease inhibition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Some compounds showed excellent urease inhibition activity, more than the standard drug. Others exhibited potent antioxidant activity. All the compounds showed significant antibacterial activities as compared to the standard drug.
The excessive use of chemicals and inorganic fertilizers by farmers to increase crop yield is detrimental to the environment and human health. Application of biostimulants such as seaweed extract (SWE) in agriculture could be an effective and eco-friendly alternative to inorganic fertilizers. Biostimulants are natural organic degradable substances. Their application serves as a source of nutrition for crops, possibly improving growth and productivity when applied in combination with the fertilizers. The current study was conducted to evaluate the vegetative growth, reproductive behavior and quality attributes of four onion cultivars, ‘Lambada’, ‘Red Bone’, ‘Nasarpuri’, and ‘Phulkara’, in response to different concentrations of commercial SWE. Four levels of SWE extract were used, 0% (control), 0.5%, 1%, 2%, and 3%, which were applied as a foliar spray to each cultivar. The application of 0.5% SWE caused a significant increase in total soluble solids, mineral content (N, P, and K), bulb weight and yield. Application at 3% SWE increased ascorbic acid as compared to control. The cultivars responded in different ways regarding bulb dry weight and bulb and neck diameter. Among all cultivars, ‘Lambada’ showed the maximum bulb dry matter, ‘Phulkara’ showed enhanced neck diameter whereas ‘Red Bone’ showed maximum leaf length. It is concluded that 0.5% SWE increased the yield, nutrient contents, and total soluble solids (TSS) of the four onion cultivars whereas 3% SWE, the highest concentration, increased ascorbic acid in different onion cultivars.
The ethyl acetate soluble part of methanolic extract of marine green alga Codium iyengarii collected from Karachi coast of Arabian Sea afforded a new steroid ([structure: see text], iyengadione) and two new steroidal glycosides [iyengaroside-A ([structure: see text]) and B ([structure: see text])] along with clerosterol galactoside ([structure: see text]). Their structures were elucidated with the aid of 1D-NMR spectroscopy and reconfirmed through HMBC experiments. The bactericidal activity of [structure: see text] was also explored and found positive response from iyengaroside-A ([structure: see text]) and clerosterol galactoside ([structure: see text]).
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