Highlights d Lipid rafts in phagolysosomal membranes of macrophages depend on flotillins d Both major defense complexes vATPase and NADPH oxidase require membrane microdomains d The human-pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus dysregulates membrane microdomains d An SNP in the human FLOT1 gene increases susceptibility for invasive aspergillosis
Due to the deleterious effects of mercury on human health and natural ecosystems, high reactivity, non-degradability, extreme volatility and relative water and tissue solubility, it would consider as one of the most toxic environmental pollutants among the transition metals. In the present investigation, we have tried to summarized the several organic material based fluorescent sensor including rhodamine, boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPYs), thiourea, crown-ether, coumarine, squaraines, pyrene, imidazole, triazole, anthracene, dansyl, naphthalenedimide/ naphthalene/ naphthalimide, naphthyridine, iridium (III) complexes, polymeric materials, cyclodextrin, phthalic anhydride, indole, calix arene, chromenone, 1,8-naphthalimides, lysine, styrylindolium, phenothiazine, thiocarbonyl quinacridone, oxadiazole, triphenylamine-triazines, tetraphenylethene, peptidyl and semicarbazone for the trace mercury detection in the aqueous, aqueous-organic and cellular media. The present review provides a brief look over the previous development in the organic material based fluorescent sensor for mercuric ion detection. Furthermore, the ligand-metal binding stoichiometry, binding/association/dissociation constants and the detection limit by the receptors have been particularly highlighted which might be useful for the future design and development of more sensitive and robust fluorescent chemosensor/chemodosimeter for the mercuric ion detection. Graphical Abstract Dummy.
Pigments are an essential part of everyday life on Earth with rapidly growing industrial and biomedical applications. Synthetic pigments account for a major portion of these pigments that in turn have deleterious effects on public health and environment. Such drawbacks of synthetic pigments have shifted the trend to use natural pigments that are considered as the best alternative to synthetic pigments due to their significant properties. Natural pigments from microorganisms are of great interest due to their broader applications in the pharmaceutical, food, and textile industry with increasing demand among the consumers opting for natural pigments. To fulfill the market demand of natural pigments new sources should be explored. Cold-adapted bacteria and fungi in the cryosphere produce a variety of pigments as a protective strategy against ecological stresses such as low temperature, oxidative stresses, and ultraviolet radiation making them a potential source for natural pigment production. This review highlights the protective strategies and pigment production by cold-adapted bacteria and fungi, their industrial and biomedical applications, condition optimization for maximum pigment extraction as well as the challenges facing in the exploitation of cryospheric microorganisms for pigment extraction that hopefully will provide valuable information, direction, and progress in forthcoming studies.
Lithium isotope separation has been achieved employing the two-step photoionization technique along with a narrow band dye laser in conjunction with a time of flight mass spectrometer. The demonstrated method yields a high degree of selectivity by tuning the dye laser at the resonance levels of Li6 and Li7. It is inferred that the concentration of the natural abundance of the Li6 isotope gets enhanced up to over 47% as the exciter dye laser is tuned to the P1∕22 of Li6 even if the linewidth of the exciter laser is not sufficiently narrow to excite the isotopic level. It is also noticed that the much higher energy density of the exciter laser limits the resolution of the fine structure levels of the lithium isotopes that leads to a loss in the enrichment of Li6 due to the power-broadening effect. Measurements of the photoionization cross section of the lithium isotopes from the 2pP1∕2,3∕22, excited states for Li6 and Li7 and the corresponding number densities are reported.
The biologically active phytochemicals are sourced from edible and medicinally important plants and are important molecules being used for the formulation of thousands of drugs. These phytochemicals have great benefits against many ailments particularly the inflammatory diseases or oxidative stress-mediated chronic diseases. Eugenol (EUG) is a versatile naturally occurring molecule as phenolic monoterpenoid and frequently found in essential oils in a wide range of plant species. EUG bears huge industrial applications particularly in pharmaceutics, dentistry, flavoring of foods, agriculture, and cosmeceutics. It is being focused recently due to its great potential in preventing several chronic conditions. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared EUG as a nonmutant and generally recognized as safe (GRAS) molecule. The available literature about pharmacological activities of EUG shows remarkable anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, analgesic, and antimicrobial properties and has a significant effect on human health. The current manuscript summarizes the pharmacological characteristics of EUG and its potential health benefits.
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