We attempted to develop an experimental animal model for peripheral neuropathic pain. Under sodium pentobarbital anesthesia, both the L5 and L6 spinal nerves (group 1) or the L5 spinal nerve alone (group 2) of one side of the rat were tightly ligated. For comparison, a parallel study was conducted with another group of rats (group 3) which received a partial tight sciatic nerve ligation, a paradigm developed previously as a neuropathy model. Withdrawal latencies to application of radiant heat to the foot were tested for the next 16 weeks in all 3 groups. Sensitivity of the hind paw to mechanical stimulation was tested with von Frey filaments. The general behavior of each rat was noted during the entire test period. Results suggested that the surgical procedure in all 3 groups produced a long-lasting hyperalgesia to noxious heat (at least 5 weeks) and mechanical allodynia (at least 10 weeks) of the affected foot. In addition, there were behavioral signs of the presence of spontaneous pain in the affected foot. Therefore, we believe we have developed an experimental animal model for peripheral neuropathy using tight ligations of spinal nerves. The model manifests the symptoms of human patients with causalgia and is compatible with a previously developed neuropathy model. The present model has two unique features. First, the surgical procedure is stereotyped. Second, the levels of injured and intact spinal segments are completely separated, allowing independent experimental manipulations of the injured and intact spinal segments in future experiments to answer questions regarding mechanisms underlying causalgia.
Cystic lesions of the retroperitoneum can be classified as either neoplastic or nonneoplastic. Neoplastic lesions include cystic lymphangioma, mucinous cystadenoma, cystic teratoma, cystic mesothelioma, müllerian cyst, epidermoid cyst, tailgut cyst, bronchogenic cyst, cystic change in solid neoplasms, pseudomyxoma retroperitonei, and perianal mucinous carcinoma. Nonneoplastic lesions include pancreatic pseudocyst, nonpancreatic pseudocyst, lymphocele, urinoma, and hematoma. Because the clinical implications of and therapeutic strategies for retroperitoneal cystic masses vary depending on the cause, the ability to noninvasively differentiate between masses is important. Although there is substantial overlap of computed tomographic (CT) findings in various retroperitoneal cysts, some CT features, along with clinical characteristics, may suggest a specific diagnosis. CT may provide important information regarding lesion location, size, and shape; the presence and thickness of a wall; the presence of septa, calcifications, or fat; and involvement of adjacent structures. The most important clinical parameters include patient gender, age, symptoms, and clinical history. Familiarity with the CT and clinical features of various retroperitoneal cystic masses facilitates accurate diagnosis and treatment.
The expression of CBF (C-repeat-binding factor) genes is required for freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. CBFs are positively regulated by INDUCER OF CBF EXPRESSION1 (ICE1) and negatively regulated by MYB15. These transcription factors directly interact with specific elements in the CBF promoters. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK/MPK) cascades function upstream to regulate CBFs. However, the mechanism by which MPKs control CBF expression during cold stress signaling remains unknown. This study showed that the activity of MYB15, a transcriptional repressor of cold signaling, is regulated by MPK6-mediated phosphorylation. MYB15 specifically interacts with MPK6, and MPK6 phosphorylates MYB15 on Ser168. MPK6-induced phosphorylation reduced the affinity of MYB15 binding to the CBF3 promoter and mutation of its phosphorylation site (MYB15S168A) enhanced the transcriptional repression of CBF3 by MYB15. Furthermore, transgenic plants overexpressing MYB15S168A showed significantly reduced CBF transcript levels in response to cold stress, compared with plants overexpressing MYB15. The MYB15S168A-overexpressing plants were also more sensitive to freezing than MYB15-overexpressing plants. These results suggest that MPK6-mediated regulation of MYB15 plays an important role in cold stress signaling in Arabidopsis.
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of sympathectomy on our previously developed animal model for neuropathic pain. The neuropathy was produced by a unilateral tight ligation of the L5 and L6 spinal nerves in 81 rats, all of which showed a marked increase in frequency of paw lifting in response to innocuous mechanical stimuli and a shortened latency of paw withdrawal in response to noxious radiant heat stimuli on the affected limb. We interpreted these as behavioral signs of mechanical allodynia and heat hyperalgesia. Surgical sympathectomy was performed by removing the sympathetic chain bilaterally from the L2 to L6 levels at 1 week prior to and 1, 3 and 5 weeks after nerve injury. In addition, the effect of sympathetic block was tested by systemically injecting guanethidine or phentolamine. Surgical sympathectomy relieved the signs of both mechanical allodynia and heat hyperalgesia. The effect of sympathectomy for mechanical allodynia is estimated to be almost fully expressed within 30 min after the operation. Sympathetic block by chemical agents reversibly relieved the mechanical allodynia. These data suggest that the rats in our model exhibit behavioral signs of neuropathic pain that are sympathetically maintained.
ObjectivesThe objective of this study was to review our experience in the surgical management of carotid body paragangliomas and evaluate the outcomes and complications according to the Shamblin classification.MethodsThirteen patients who had been diagnosed and surgically treated for carotid body tumors (CBTs) were enrolled in this study. We reviewed patient demographics, radiographic findings, and surgical outcomes collected from medical records.ResultsFifteen CBTs were found in 13 patients and 13 tumors were resected. Selective preoperative tumor embolization was performed on six patients. The median blood loss, operation time, and hospital stay for these patients were not significantly reduced compared to those without embolization. The median tumor size was 2.3 cm in Shamblin I and II and 4 cm in Shamblin III. The median intraoperative blood loss was 280 mL and 700 mL, respectively (P<0.05). Internal carotid artery ligation with reconstruction was accomplished on three patients (23%), and they all belonged to Shamblin III (38%). One Shamblin III patient (8%) developed transient cerebral ischemia, and postoperative stroke with death occurred in another Shamblin III patient. Postoperative permanent cranial nerve deficit occurred in three patients (23%) who were all in Shamblin III (P=0.03). There were no recurrences or delayed complications at the median follow up of 29 months.ConclusionShamblin III had a high risk of postoperative neurovascular complications. Therefore, early detection and prompt surgical resection of CBTs will decrease surgical morbidity.
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