This study investigates the influence of the surrounding gas on a droplet impacting a smooth dry glass surface at high Weber and Reynolds numbers. It was performed using a flywheel experiment and different gases at ambient pressure. We analyzed the splashing outcome by measuring the size, velocity, and angle of the secondary droplets and by calculating the total volume ejected. We show that gas entrapment is not the mechanism responsible for splashing at high Weber and Reynolds numbers. We demonstrate that splashing is influenced by the density, followed by the viscosity, and last by the mean free path of the surrounding gas. Furthermore, the surrounding gas primarily affects the number of secondary droplets ejected and their ejection angle, whereas the droplet size and horizontal velocity are independent of the surrounding gas properties. We provide the first theoretical expression for the total volume ejected using the theory of Riboux and Gordillo [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 024507 (2014)], which attributes the secondary droplet generation to a lift force experienced by spreading lamella. The relationship between the ejected volume and the splashing parameter is described by a power function.
Abstract. Beyond its physical importance in both fundamental and
climate research, atmospheric icing is considered as a severe operational
condition in many engineering applications like aviation, electrical power
transmission and wind-energy production. To reproduce such icing conditions
in a laboratory environment, icing wind tunnels are frequently used. In this
paper, a comprehensive overview on the design, construction and commissioning
of the Braunschweig Icing Wind Tunnel is given. The tunnel features a test
section of 0.5 m × 0.5 m with peak velocities of up to
40 m s−1. The static air temperature ranges from −25 to
+30 ∘C. Supercooled droplet icing with liquid water contents up to
3 g m−3 can be reproduced. The unique aspect of this facility is
the combination of an icing tunnel with a cloud chamber system for making ice
particles. These ice particles are more realistic in shape and density than
those usually used for mixed phase and ice crystal icing experiments. Ice water contents up to 20 g m−3 can be generated. We further show
how current state-of-the-art measurement techniques for particle sizing are
performed on ice particles. The data are compared to those of in-flight
measurements in mesoscale convective cloud systems in tropical regions.
Finally, some applications of the icing wind tunnel are presented.
Unmanned aerial systems (UAS) fill a gap in high-resolution observations of meteorological parameters on small scales in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Especially in the remote polar areas, there is a strong need for such detailed observations with different research foci. In this study, three systems are presented which have been adapted to the particular needs for operating in harsh polar environments: The fixed-wing aircraft M 2 AV with a mass of 6 kg, the quadrocopter ALICE with a mass of 19 kg, and the fixed-wing aircraft ALADINA with a mass of almost 25 kg. For all three systems, their particular modifications for polar operations are documented, in particular the insulation and heating requirements for low temperatures. Each system has completed meteorological observations under challenging conditions, including take-off and landing on the ice surface, low temperatures (down to −28 ∘ C), icing, and, for the quadrocopter, under the impact of the rotor downwash. The influence on the measured parameters is addressed here in the form of numerical simulations and spectral data analysis. Furthermore, results from several case studies are discussed: With the M 2 AV, low-level flights above leads in Antarctic sea ice were performed to study the impact of areas of open water within ice surfaces on the ABL, and a comparison with simulations was performed. ALICE was used to study the small-scale structure and short-term variability of the ABL during a cruise of RV Polarstern to the 79 ∘ N glacier in Greenland. With ALADINA, aerosol measurements of different size classes were performed in Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, in highly complex terrain. In particular, very small, freshly formed particles are difficult to monitor and require the active control of temperature inside the instruments. The main aim of the article is to demonstrate the potential of UAS for ABL studies in polar environments, and to provide practical advice for future research activities with similar systems.
Abstract. The generation, transport and characterization of supercooled
droplets in multiphase wind tunnel test facilities is of great importance
for conducting icing experiments and to better understand cloud
microphysical processes such as coalescence, ice nucleation, accretion and
riming. To this end, a spray system has been developed, tested and
calibrated in the Braunschweig Icing Wind Tunnel. Liquid droplets in the
size range of 1 to 150 µm produced by pneumatic atomizers were
accelerated to velocities between 10 and 40 m s−1 and supercooled to
temperatures between 0 and −20 ∘C. Thereby, liquid water contents between 0.07 and 2.5 g m−3 were obtained in the test
section. The wind tunnel conditions were stable and reproducible within
3 % standard variation for median volumetric diameter (MVD) and 7 %
standard deviation for liquid water content (LWC). Different instruments
were integrated in the icing wind tunnel measuring the particle size
distribution (PSD), MVD and LWC. Phase Doppler interferometry (PDI), laser
spectroscopy with a fast cloud droplet probe (FCDP) and shadowgraphy were
systematically compared for present wind tunnel conditions. MVDs measured
with the three instruments agreed within 15 % in the range between 8 and 35 µm and showed high coefficients of determination
(R2) of 0.985 for FCDP and 0.799 for shadowgraphy with respect to PDI data. Between 35 and 56 µm MVD, the shadowgraphy data
exhibit a low bias with respect to PDI. The instruments' trends and biases
for selected droplet conditions are discussed. LWCs determined from mass
flow calculations in the range of 0.07–1.5 g m−3 are compared to measurements of the bulk phase rotating cylinder technique (RCT) and the above-mentioned single-particle instruments. For RCT, agreement with the mass flow calculations of approximately 20 % in LWC was achieved. For PDI 84 % of measurement points with LWC<0.5 g m−3 agree with mass flow calculations within a range of ±0.1 g m−3. Using the different techniques, a comprehensive wind tunnel calibration for supercooled droplets was achieved, which is a prerequisite for providing well-characterized liquid cloud conditions for icing tests for aerospace, wind turbines and power networks.
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