dress this critical situation and to reduce the spread of the infections, the Italian Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte signed a series of decrees that imposed restrictions on the movement of individuals in the entire national territory from March 10 until May 3 (but these measures are likely to be extended). People are allowed to leave their homes for limited and documented purposes (e.g., shopping for basic necessities and to go to work [if this cannot be done from home]). Several activities have been temporarily closed, including schools, universities and shops selling non-essential goods. Although these measures and efforts are necessary for reducing pressure on Italian healthcare systems, there are reasons to be concerned because prolonged home confinement during a disease outbreak may affect people's physical and mental health (Wang et al., 2020; World Health Organization, 2020). Home confinement can reduce the level of physical activity and the exposure to daylight, and increase the level of stress due to social isolation (e.g., avoid social contact with family and friends) and the impossibility to engage in satisfying activity. These changes can impact the pace of the flow of time (Zakay, 2014), disrupt night-time sleep (Altena
Recent studies have indicated that assessments of need thwarting better predict diminished functioning and ill-being compared to low need satisfaction, which better predict optimal functioning and well-being. In this study we aimed to further explore the important theoretical distinction between psychological need thwarting and need satisfaction in the domain of interpersonal relationships. We examined whether the distinction between need satisfaction and thwarting is due to method effects resulting from positive and negative item wording, however, multi-trait multi-method analyses indicated no substantial method effects.Further, we showed that a lack of need satisfaction (i.e., need dissatisfaction) is not equivalent to experiences of need thwarting. In fact, need thwarting better predicted compromised relational functioning compared to need dissatisfaction. Need satisfaction was a stronger predictor of interpersonal competence compared to need thwarting and need dissatisfaction. The current findings underline the importance of assessing need thwarting when examining compromised functioning in interpersonal relationships.
Italy is one of the major COVID-19 hotspots. To reduce the spread of the infections and the pressure on Italian healthcare systems, since March 10th 2020, Italy is under a total lockdown, with restrictions on the movement of individuals in the entire nation, forcing people to home confinement. Here we present data from 1310 people living in the Italian territory (Mage= 23.91±3.60 years, 880 females, 501 workers, 809 University students), who completed an online survey from March 24th to March 28th 2020. In the survey, we asked participants to think about their use of digital media before going to bed, their sleep pattern, and their subjective experience of time in the previous week (17th-23rd of March, which was the second week of the lockdown) and to the first week of February (3rd-10th, before any restriction in any Italian area). During the lockdown, people increased the usage of digital media near bedtime, but this change did not affect sleep habits. Nevertheless, during home confinement sleep timing markedly changed, with people going to bed and waking up later, spending more time in bed but, paradoxically, also reporting a lower sleep quality. The increase in sleep difficulties was stronger for people with a higher level of depression, anxiety, and stress symptomatology, and was associated with the feeling of time dilatation. Considering that the lockdown is likely to continue for weeks, research data are urgently needed to support decision-making, to build public awareness, and to provide timely and supportive psychosocial interventions.
ObjectivesThe purpose of our study was to explore the prevalence, and the role of mood, exercise frequency, age, and gender differences of exercise dependence. Methods: Regular exercisers (N = 409) completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Exercise Dependence Scale, and the Profile of Mood States. For data analyses, the participants were stratified for sex and age (age ranges = young adults: 18–24 years, adults: 25–44 years, and middle-aged adults: 45–64 years). Results: We found that: (a) 4.4% of the participants were classified as at-risk for exercise dependence; (b) the men and the two younger groups (i.e., young adults and adults) had higher exercise dependence scores; and (c) age, gender, exercise frequency, and mood state were related to exercise dependence. Conclusions: Our results support previous research on the prevalence of exercise dependence and reveal that adulthood may be the critical age for developing exercise dependence. These findings have practical implication for identifying individuals at-risk for exercise dependence symptoms, and may aid in targeting and guiding the implementation of prevention program for adults.
Resilient, cohesive communities are important contributors to the health and well-being of their residents (Ehsan, Klaas, Bastianen, & Spini, 2019). Advances in social psychology suggest a multitude of physical and mental health outcomes derive from meaningful belonging in social groups within a range of contexts (Haslam,
A s chamadas teorias da transição democrática constituíram, como se sabe, um dos filões mais ricos das ciências sociais no Brasil e na América Latina nas últimas décadas. Realizando uma ampla radiografia institucional dos países que se democratizavam, trabalhos como aquele editado por O'Donnell et alii (1986) constituíram, pelo menos até os anos 90, a forma por excelência de estudar e interpretar o autoritarismo e o momento em que a incerteza sobre os resultados do jogo político e a força reguladora de regras universais se impuseram novamente sobre o poder de um ator único -tal a definição de democratização das teorias da transição. Mais ainda, as teorias da transição consagraram a recém surgida ciência política, que na maioria dos países latino-americanos somente a partir dos anos 70 se afirma como um campo de investigação independente, com uma metodologia própria e paradigmas de análises distintos.Ao longo dos anos 90, vai se consolidando, contudo, uma nova abordagem sociológica da democratização, a qual, refuta a homologia en-
703* Este artigo retoma partes de trabalhos anteriores dos autores e mais notadamente artigos escritos para um dossiê sobre espaço público publicado pela revista Metapolítica
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