Scotchbond Universal and Prime & Bond Elect presented acceptable clinical performance after 18 months of clinical service. However, Scotchbond Universal, when applied with a self-etch approach, did demonstrate a relatively high level of marginal discoloration when compared to the other groups.
Within the relative short-term evaluation of 5 years, restorations fabricated from monolithic zirconia material displayed relatively low fracture rates. Anterior restorations fractured at a slightly higher rate than posterior restorations, and FDPs fractured at a rate double that of SCs.
Purpose: To evaluate the effects of dentin collagen modifications induced by various cross-linkers on the stability of collagen matrix and the inhibition of root caries. Materials and Methods: The following cross-linkers were tested: 5% glutaraldehyde (GA), 0.5% proanthocyanidin (PA), 0.625% genipin (GE). In the first experiment, cross-linker-treated demineralized human root dentin was digested with bacterial collagenase, centrifuged, and the supernatants were subjected to amino acid analysis to determine collagen content. The residues were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and hydroxyproline analysis. In the second experiment, bovine root surfaces were conditioned with phosphoric acid, treated with the cross-linkers, incubated with Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus for 1 week and the root caries inhibition was evaluated with confocal microscopy. Lastly, the ability of the bacteria to colonize the root surface was evaluated. In this experiment slabs of bovine root were treated with the cross-linkers and incubated in a suspension of S. mutans and L. acidophilus. The slabs were washed, resuspended in water, glucose was added, and the pH measured. Results: While all collagen was digested with collagenase in the control groups, only a small proportion was solubilized in the GA-, PA-, and GE-treated groups. The root caries was significantly inhibited by treatment with PA or GA. Drops in pH in the cross-linker-treated groups were essentially the same as in the untreated group. Conclusion: Naturally occurring cross-linkers, especially PA, could be used to modify root dentin collagen to efficiently stabilize collagen and to increase its resistance against caries.
Recent developed flowable composite resins have been marketed for bulk filling of preparations or replacement of dentin in a single increment. The obvious attraction of these materials-quicker placement of restorations-has rapidly made them very popular despite the limited in vitro data and lack of clinical studies. This Critical Appraisal will review some of the available in vitro literature on the topic and summarize the available knowledge in this new category of restorative materials.
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