Sows were subjected to moderate heat stress in a chamber (32 C) from d 100 of pregnancy until less than 8 h before delivery of first piglet, while control sows were in a thermoneutral chamber (21 C) or farrowing house (22 C). Blood serum and colostrum at parturition of heat-stressed sows and their piglets' serum at birth had elevated cortisol concentrations. Total protein, globulin and immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations in sow serum tended to decrease as parturition time was approached; albumin did not change. Total protein and IgG concentrations in colostrum at parturition and in milk 24 and 48 h later tended to be lower in heat-stressed sows. Concentrations of these four protein fractions (total, globulin, IgG and albumin) in piglet serum at birth did not differ among treatment groups, but soon after colostrum ingestion they increased markedly in all groups. Therefore, in all groups total protein remained constant while globulin and IgG decreased. Globulin concentration on d 1 was lowest in piglets from heat-stressed sows, but its rate of decrease after d 1 was not affected by sow treatment. Immunoglobulin G concentration was 11 mg/ml lower, but its rate of decrease through postnatal d 20 was slower in piglets from heat-stressed sows than in those from control sows; a 10-mg/ml difference in IgG concentration on postnatal d 1 has been associated with increased preweaning mortality in piglets. Higher cortisol concentration in serum and lower IgG in colostrum of sows under heat stress was associated in their piglets with higher serum cortisol at birth and lower serum IgG for the first 20 d postnatum.
This study evaluated the concentration of insulin‐like growth factor (IGF)‐I present in the mammary secretions, its relation with changes in serum IGF‐I and immunoglobulin (Ig)G, and intestinal mucosa alterations of 42 calves during the first week of life. Cows were randomly assigned to two groups, treated and control, with 21 animals in each. The treated group was injected with 500 mg recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) at day −35 relative to predicted calving date. Newborn calves were randomly assigned to a 2 × 3 factorial scheme: dams group and slaughter date (at birth, 2 and 7 days of life). IGF‐I concentration was higher in the colostrum of treated cows (P < 0.05), but did not differ in the subsequent mammary secretions. Immunoglobulin G concentration in colostrum and subsequent mammary secretions did not differ between groups (P > 0.05). No differences were found in calf serum IGF‐I levels from birth to the seventh day or serum immunoglobulin G concentration after 24 h of life (P > 0.05). IGF‐I colostrum levels observed in this study did not affect the small intestine morphometry. The segment from the middle jejunum showed higher mucosa partial volume (Vv) at birth and 7 days old compared to other segments, and at just 2 days of age this segment reduced its Vv, not differing from other segments of the same date.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the immunoglobulin G (IgG) absorption by Santa Ines lambs under two colostrum management systems usually used by producers. Twenty-seven Santa Ines newborn lambs received two meals of 250 ml of bovine colostrum from Holstein cows (BC group) or ovine colostrum from Santa Ines ewes (OC group) at 0 and 6 h of life. Pools of BC and OC were analyzed by radial immunodiffusion to quantify IgG. Results are expressed as least-square means and standard errors of mean (means 6 s.e.m.). The concentration of IgG in bovine and ovine pools averaged 115.7 6 20.5 and 48.1 6 5.0 mg/ml, respectively, levels of concentration found in similar regular colostrum managements. The efficiency of IgG absorption was evaluated under two aspects, maximum apparent efficiency of absorption and total apparent efficiency of absorption (AEAmax and AEAtotal, respectively). The AEAmax was calculated taking into account the mass of IgG ingested just in the first meal of colostrum at birth and the serum IgG concentration at 6 h while the AEAtotal took into account the serum IgG concentration at 24 h of life that reflects the first colostrum offered at birth and the second meal at 6 h. The IgG and apparent efficiency of absorption results were transformed into the square root and log base 10, respectively, and were presented as geometric leastsquare means. In BC, lower ( P , 0.05) AEAmax and AEAtotal were verified (14.2% and 15.6%, respectively), in relation to OC (23.6% and 24.4%, respectively). Serum IgG concentrations at 24 h were significantly higher ( P , 0.05) in BC (31.4 mg/ml, respectively) compared with OC (22.2 mg/ml, respectively). The results in this study confirm that there is a limitation to the process of IgG absorption by the enterocytes of newborn lambs, which determined a nonlinear behavior of passive immunity acquisition. Similar values of AEAmax and AEAtotal for the two sources of colostrum reveal that the process of IgG absorption from the first and second meals during the first 6 h of life did not change and indicates that the ingestion of a second feeding of quality colostrum can enhance the acquisition of immune protection of newborn lambs.
This study unveils histological features of the intestinal tract of juvenile striped catfish Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Linnaeus, 1776) in three size classes (weight, standard length): I – 36.84 ± 10.19 g, 14.52 ± 1.54 cm; II – 59.03 ± 11.47 g, 17.17 ± 1.06 cm; III – 89.72 ± 18.70 g, 20.79 ± 1.55 cm, respectively. Histological organization of the juvenile speckled catfish intestine bears features common to the carnivorous fish, but the organ presents some convolutions that indicate a certain degree of dietary flexibility, a surprising trend, common only to omnivorous Siluriforms. The architecture of the mucosa of the speckled catfish intestine indicates that the species concentrates digestion and absorption of nutrients in the medium intestine, a common feature among carnivorous Teleosts.
Histological responses of the intestine are key for evaluating nutritional value of feed ingredients, since the organ is not only the chief site of feed digestion and nutrient absorption but also plays an important immunological function. Histomorphological alterations were evaluated in the intestine of juvenile striped catfish, Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, fed diets containing 0 (control), 10 or 20% inclusion of lyophilized bovine colostrum (LBC), as source of protein or bioactive peptides, for either 30 or 60 days. Fish fed 20LBC presented at 60d a distinct pattern of macrophages and, some of them, higher number of vacuoles in rectum mucosa. The thickness of the muscle layer (TML) in fish fed diets with LBC was higher in the first portion of medium intestine than fish fed 0LBC. All fish presented significant increase of TML in the second portion of medium intestine along feeding period, but fish fed 20LBC had smaller values of TML than those of fish fed 0 and 10LBC which might be related to the higher intestinal coefficient found for this group. The TML of rectum was higher just for fish fed 10LBC. Dietary LBC altered morphometrical features of juvenile striped catfish intestine and possibly induced inflammatory reaction in the rectal mucosa, as a function of level of inclusion, feeding period and segment of intestine analyzed. Key words: gut absorption, histology, mammal protein, lyophilized bovine colostrum, striped catfish Histomorfologia intestinal de Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum alimentado com colostro bovino como fonte de proteína e peptídeos bioativos RESUMO: Respostas histológicas do intestino são fundamentais para avaliar o valor nutritivo de ingredientes alimentares, uma vez que o órgão não é só o principal local de digestão e absorção dos nutrientes, mas também exerce uma importante função imunológica. Alterações histomorfológicas foram avaliadas no intestino de juvenis de cachara, Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, alimentado com dietas contendo 0 (controle), 10 e 20% de inclusão de colostro bovino liofilizado (CBL) como fonte de proteína e peptídeos bioativos, aos 30 e 60 dias. Aos 60 dias, peixes alimentados com 20CBL apresentaram macrófagos de aspecto distinto e alguns, uma grande concentração de vacúolos na mucosa retal. A espessura da camada muscular (ECM) em peixes alimentados com CBL foi maior na primeira porção do intestino médio em relação àqueles alimentados com 0CBL. Ao longo do período experimental, todos os peixes mostraram aumento significativo na ECM na segunda porção do intestino médio, entretanto peixes do grupo 20CBL tiveram menores valores para a ECM do que os demais, o que pode estar relacionado com o maior coeficiente intestinal encontrado para este grupo. A ECM no reto foi maior apenas para os peixes alimentados com 10CBL. A inclusão de CBL na dieta do cachara alterou características morfométricas do intestino e, possivelmente, induziu uma reação inflamatória na mucosa retal em função do nível de inclusão, período de alimentação e porção do intestino analisada. Palavras-chave:...
The objective of this study was to investigate immunoglobulin G (IgG) and total serum protein (TP) acquisition in newborn Santa Ines lambs fed Holstein bovine or Santa Ines ovine colostrum as well as the cell proliferation rate in the animals' intestine epithelium. At 0 h and 6 h of life, 12 newborn lambs received 250 mL of bovine 1st milking colostrum (BC) and another 12 animals received 250 mL of ovine 1st milking colostrum (OC). Blood samples were collected at 0, 6, 24, and 72 h of life. Six animals were randomly slaughtered just after birth, without colostrum intake. The other animals were randomly slaughtered at 24 and 72 h. The IgG serum concentration at 6, 24 and 72 h were significantly higher for BC, 16.32 ± 6.19; 33.80 ± 5.68 and 27.95 ± 5.46 mg/mL respectively, compared with OC, 11.31 ± 6.08, 21.02 ± 6.53 and 19.88 ± 7.31 mg/mL. BC showed higher (P < 0.05) TP values (7.29 ± 0.87 and 6.89 ± 0.30 g/100 mL) at 24 and 72 h in relation to OC (5.73 ± 1.35 and 5.69 ± 0.57 g/100 mL). At birth, the animals showed 32.52%, 45.47% and 30.60% cells in division for the duodenum, jejunum and ileum, respectively. At 24 h, the OC animals showed lower (P < 0.0001) mitotic cell percentage in the duodenum (42.12%) and ileum (35.66%) in relation to the BC animals, 46.44% and 39.74%, respectively. At 72 h, a lower (P < 0.0001) rate of proliferation was observed in the duodenum crypts of the OC animals (36.28%) compared with BC (43.18%). The results indicate that this lacteal secretion can accelerate the epithelium renovation process and can be used as an alternative source of IgG for newborn lambs.
RESUMO -Objetivou-se determinar a flutuação no nível de anticorpos séricos em cabras nos períodos pré e pós-parto e a eficiência do processo de aquisição de imunidade passiva em cabritos recém-nascidos utilizando colostros bovino e caprino, visando à avaliação de uma alternativa de manejo de colostro. Foram utilizadas 18 cabras e suas respectivas crias, num total de 33 animais. A coleta de sangue das cabras foi iniciada 45 dias antes da data prevista para o parto e foi realizada em intervalos de cinco dias até o 5 o dia após o parto. Os cabritos foram distribuídos em dois grupos: um grupo recebeu colostro caprino e o outro colostro bovino. As coletas de sangue foram feitas às 0, 12, 24 e 48 horas e aos 5, 10, 15, 17, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 50 e 60 dias de vida. Foram analisadas as concentrações séricas de proteína total e imunoglobulinas, além da concentração de imunoglobinas no colostro. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado e as variáveis séricas analisadas como medidas repetidas. A ausência de queda na concentração sérica de proteínas totais e imunoglobinas no período pré-parto indica que a mobilização de anticorpos para glândula mamária ocorre em concentrações que permitem o animal manter essas variáveis sem grandes alterações. No grupo que recebeu colostro bovino, a data de concentração máxima de proteínas totais (7,16 ± 0,28 g/dL)foi verificada às 48,68 ± 0,70 horas de vida e a de imunoglobinas, às 48,75 ± 0,73 horas, com média de 37,56 ± 2,38 unidades ZST (turvação por sulfato de zinco). No grupo que recebeu colostro caprino, os valores máximos de proteínas totais e imunoglobinas séricas ocorreram mais tardiamente, aos 20,05 ± 1,36 e 20,11 ± 1,72 dias de vida, com médias de 5,91 ± 0,22 g/dL e 28,17 ± 2,05 unidades ZST, respectivamente. O colostro caprino pode ser substituído pelo colostro bovino, que promove melhor aquisição inicial de imunoglobulinas aos neonatos.Palavras-chave: imunoglobulinas, pequenos ruminantes, proteína sérica, Saanen Fluctuation of serum variables in goats and comparative study of antibody absorption in new-born kids using cattle and goat colostrumABSTRACT -The objective of this study was to determine the fluctuation of serum antibodies in goats in the period before and immediately after kidding and the passive immunity acquisition efficiency in kids fed bovine and goat colostrum, to assess an alternative for colostrum management. Eighteen goats and their offspring were used in a total of 33 animals. Goat blood samples started to be collected 45 days before the predicated kidding date, at five-day intervals until the 5 th day post kidding. The kids were distributed in two groups: one group received goat colostrum and the other cattle colostrums. Blood collections were made 0, 12, 24 and 48 hours, and at 5, 10, 15, 17, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50 and 60 days of age. The serum concentration of total protein (TP) and immunoglobulins (Ig), and the colostrum IgG concentration were analyzed. A randomized complete design was used and the serum variables were analyzed as repea...
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