The objective of this study was to evaluate the immunoglobulin G (IgG) absorption by Santa Ines lambs under two colostrum management systems usually used by producers. Twenty-seven Santa Ines newborn lambs received two meals of 250 ml of bovine colostrum from Holstein cows (BC group) or ovine colostrum from Santa Ines ewes (OC group) at 0 and 6 h of life. Pools of BC and OC were analyzed by radial immunodiffusion to quantify IgG. Results are expressed as least-square means and standard errors of mean (means 6 s.e.m.). The concentration of IgG in bovine and ovine pools averaged 115.7 6 20.5 and 48.1 6 5.0 mg/ml, respectively, levels of concentration found in similar regular colostrum managements. The efficiency of IgG absorption was evaluated under two aspects, maximum apparent efficiency of absorption and total apparent efficiency of absorption (AEAmax and AEAtotal, respectively). The AEAmax was calculated taking into account the mass of IgG ingested just in the first meal of colostrum at birth and the serum IgG concentration at 6 h while the AEAtotal took into account the serum IgG concentration at 24 h of life that reflects the first colostrum offered at birth and the second meal at 6 h. The IgG and apparent efficiency of absorption results were transformed into the square root and log base 10, respectively, and were presented as geometric leastsquare means. In BC, lower ( P , 0.05) AEAmax and AEAtotal were verified (14.2% and 15.6%, respectively), in relation to OC (23.6% and 24.4%, respectively). Serum IgG concentrations at 24 h were significantly higher ( P , 0.05) in BC (31.4 mg/ml, respectively) compared with OC (22.2 mg/ml, respectively). The results in this study confirm that there is a limitation to the process of IgG absorption by the enterocytes of newborn lambs, which determined a nonlinear behavior of passive immunity acquisition. Similar values of AEAmax and AEAtotal for the two sources of colostrum reveal that the process of IgG absorption from the first and second meals during the first 6 h of life did not change and indicates that the ingestion of a second feeding of quality colostrum can enhance the acquisition of immune protection of newborn lambs.
The current COVID-19 pandemic demands massive testing by Real-time RT-PCR (Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction), which is considered the gold standard diagnostic test for the detection of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. However, the virus continues to evolve with mutations that lead to phenotypic alterations as higher transmissibility, pathogenicity or vaccine evasion. Another big issue are mutations in the annealing sites of primers and probes of RT-PCR diagnostic kits leading to false-negative results. Therefore, here we identify mutations in the N (Nucleocapsid) gene that affects the use of the GeneFinder COVID-19 Plus RealAmp Kit. We sequenced SARS-CoV-2 genomes from 17 positive samples with no N gene detection but with RDRP (RNA-dependent RNA polymerase) and E (Envelope) genes detection, and observed a set of three different mutations affecting the N detection: a deletion of 18 nucleotides (Del28877-28894), a substitution of GGG to AAC (28881-28883) and a frameshift mutation caused by deletion (Del28877-28878). The last one cause a deletion of six AAs (amino acids) located in the central intrinsic disorder region at protein level. We also found this mutation in 99 of the 14,346 sequenced samples by the Sao Paulo state Network for Pandemic Alert of Emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants, demonstrating the circulation of the mutation in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Continuous monitoring and characterization of mutations affecting the annealing sites of primers and probes by genomic surveillance programs are necessary to maintain the effectiveness of the diagnosis of COVID-19.
The objective of this study was to investigate immunoglobulin G (IgG) and total serum protein (TP) acquisition in newborn Santa Ines lambs fed Holstein bovine or Santa Ines ovine colostrum as well as the cell proliferation rate in the animals' intestine epithelium. At 0 h and 6 h of life, 12 newborn lambs received 250 mL of bovine 1st milking colostrum (BC) and another 12 animals received 250 mL of ovine 1st milking colostrum (OC). Blood samples were collected at 0, 6, 24, and 72 h of life. Six animals were randomly slaughtered just after birth, without colostrum intake. The other animals were randomly slaughtered at 24 and 72 h. The IgG serum concentration at 6, 24 and 72 h were significantly higher for BC, 16.32 ± 6.19; 33.80 ± 5.68 and 27.95 ± 5.46 mg/mL respectively, compared with OC, 11.31 ± 6.08, 21.02 ± 6.53 and 19.88 ± 7.31 mg/mL. BC showed higher (P < 0.05) TP values (7.29 ± 0.87 and 6.89 ± 0.30 g/100 mL) at 24 and 72 h in relation to OC (5.73 ± 1.35 and 5.69 ± 0.57 g/100 mL). At birth, the animals showed 32.52%, 45.47% and 30.60% cells in division for the duodenum, jejunum and ileum, respectively. At 24 h, the OC animals showed lower (P < 0.0001) mitotic cell percentage in the duodenum (42.12%) and ileum (35.66%) in relation to the BC animals, 46.44% and 39.74%, respectively. At 72 h, a lower (P < 0.0001) rate of proliferation was observed in the duodenum crypts of the OC animals (36.28%) compared with BC (43.18%). The results indicate that this lacteal secretion can accelerate the epithelium renovation process and can be used as an alternative source of IgG for newborn lambs.
Sao Paulo State, currently experiences a second COVID‐19 wave overwhelming the healthcare system. Due to the paucity of SARS‐CoV‐2 complete genome sequencing, we established a Network for Pandemic Alert of Emerging SARS‐CoV‐2 Variants to rapidly understand and monitor the spread of SARS‐CoV‐2 variants into the state. Through analysis of 210 SARS‐CoV‐2 complete genomes obtained from the largest regional health departments we identified cocirculation of multiple SARS‐CoV‐2 lineages such as B.1.1 (0.5%), B.1.1.28 (23.2%), B.1.1.7 (alpha variant, 6.2%), B.1.566 (1.4%), B.1.544 (0.5%), C.37 (0.5%) P.1 (gamma variant, 66.2%), and P.2 (zeta variant, 1.0%). Our analysis allowed also the detection, for the first time in Brazil, the South African B.1.351 (beta) variant of concern, B.1.351 (501Y.V2) (0.5%), characterized by the following mutations: ORF1ab: T265I, R724K, S1612L, K1655N, K3353R, SGF 3675_F3677del, P4715L, E5585D; spike: D80A, D215G, L242_L244del, A262D, K417N, E484K, N501Y, D614G, A701V, C1247F; ORF3a: Q57H, S171L, E: P71L; ORF7b: Y10F, N: T205I; ORF14: L52F. The most recent common ancestor of the identified strain was inferred to be mid‐October to late December 2020. Our analysis demonstrated the P.1 lineage predominance and allowed the early detection of the South African strain for the first time in Brazil. We highlight the importance of SARS‐CoV‐2 active monitoring to ensure the rapid detection of potential variants for pandemic control and vaccination strategies. Highlights Identification of B.1.351 (beta) variant of concern in the Sao Paulo State. Dissemination of SARS‐CoV‐2 variants of concern and interest in the Sao Paulo State. Mutational Profile of the circulating variants of concern and interest.
The high numbers of COVID-19 cases and deaths in Brazil have made Latin America an epicentre of the pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 established sustained transmission in Brazil early in the pandemic, but important gaps remain in our understanding of virus transmission dynamics at a national scale. We use 17,135 near-complete genomes sampled from 27 Brazilian states and bordering country Paraguay. From March to November 2020, we detected co-circulation of multiple viral lineages that were linked to multiple importations (predominantly from Europe). After November 2020, we detected large, local transmission clusters within the country. In the absence of effective restriction measures, the epidemic progressed, and in January 2021 there was emergence and onward spread, both within and abroad, of variants of concern and variants under monitoring, including Gamma (P.1) and Zeta (P.2). We also characterized a genomic overview of the epidemic in Paraguay and detected evidence of importation of SARS-CoV-2 ancestor lineages and variants of concern from Brazil. Our findings show that genomic surveillance in Brazil enabled assessment of the real-time spread of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.
The dissemination of the Delta VOC in Brazil is still unclear, despite the frequent reports of isolated cases from different Brazilian states. In this report we characterize the dissemination of the Delta VOC in Brazil and where the introductions of this lineage fall within the global Delta phylogeny. We also examined the mutational profile of the largest clade within the Brazilian Delta VOCs, with a focus on samples which were obtained in the State of Sao Paulo, and especially in the city of Sao Paulo, the largest metropolis of South America, and a national and international transportation hub.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite LLC. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers
Part of the Research Solutions Family.