In this work we revisit the MIT bag model to describe quark matter within both the usual Fermi-Dirac and the Tsallis statistics. We verify the effects of the non-additivity of the latter by analysing two different pictures: the first order phase transition of the QCD phase diagram and stellar matter properties. While, the QCD phase diagram is visually affected by the Tsallis statistics, the resulting effects on quark star macroscopic properties are barely noticed.
Premise Lantana and Lippia (Verbenaceae) are two large Linnean genera whose classification has been based on associated fruit traits: fleshy vs. dry fruits and one vs. two seed‐bearing units. We reconstruct evolutionary relationships and the evolution of the two fruit traits to test the validity of these traits for classification. Methods Previous studies of plastid DNA sequences provided limited resolution for this group. Consequently, seven nuclear loci, including ITS, ETS, and five PPR loci, were sequenced for 88 accessions of the Lantana/Lippia clade and three outgroups. Results Neither Lantana nor Lippia is monophyletic. Burroughsia, Nashia, Phyla, and several Aloysia species are included within the clade comprising Lantana and Lippia. We provide a hypothesis for fruit evolution and biogeographic history in the group and their relevance for classification. Conclusions Fleshy fruits evolved multiple times in the Lantana/Lippia clade and thus are not suitable taxonomic characters. Several sections of Lantana and Lippia and the small genera are monophyletic, but Lippia section Zappania is broadly paraphyletic, making circumscription of genera difficult. Lippia sect. Rhodolippia is a polyphyletic group characterized by convergence in showy bracts. Species of Lantana sect. Sarcolippia, previously transferred to Lippia, are not monophyletic. The clade originated and diversified in South America, with at least four expansions into both Central America and the Caribbean and two to Africa. The types species of Lantana and Lippia occur in small sister clades, rendering any taxonomy that retains either genus similar to its current circumscription impossible.
Epiphytes are hyper‐diverse and one of the frequently undervalued life forms in plant surveys and biodiversity inventories. Epiphytes of the Atlantic Forest, one of the most endangered ecosystems in the world, have high endemism and radiated recently in the Pliocene. We aimed to (1) compile an extensive Atlantic Forest data set on vascular, non‐vascular plants (including hemiepiphytes), and lichen epiphyte species occurrence and abundance; (2) describe the epiphyte distribution in the Atlantic Forest, in order to indicate future sampling efforts. Our work presents the first epiphyte data set with information on abundance and occurrence of epiphyte phorophyte species. All data compiled here come from three main sources provided by the authors: published sources (comprising peer‐reviewed articles, books, and theses), unpublished data, and herbarium data. We compiled a data set composed of 2,095 species, from 89,270 holo/hemiepiphyte records, in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay, recorded from 1824 to early 2018. Most of the records were from qualitative data (occurrence only, 88%), well distributed throughout the Atlantic Forest. For quantitative records, the most common sampling method was individual trees (71%), followed by plot sampling (19%), and transect sampling (10%). Angiosperms (81%) were the most frequently registered group, and Bromeliaceae and Orchidaceae were the families with the greatest number of records (27,272 and 21,945, respectively). Ferns and Lycophytes presented fewer records than Angiosperms, and Polypodiaceae were the most recorded family, and more concentrated in the Southern and Southeastern regions. Data on non‐vascular plants and lichens were scarce, with a few disjunct records concentrated in the Northeastern region of the Atlantic Forest. For all non‐vascular plant records, Lejeuneaceae, a family of liverworts, was the most recorded family. We hope that our effort to organize scattered epiphyte data help advance the knowledge of epiphyte ecology, as well as our understanding of macroecological and biogeographical patterns in the Atlantic Forest. No copyright restrictions are associated with the data set. Please cite this Ecology Data Paper if the data are used in publication and teaching events.
Background and aims – The last comprehensive study that estimated the number of Verbenaceae genera and species was published in 2004, and included 34 genera and around 1200 species. Since then, several publications based on morphology and/or molecular data have proposed important changes within the family. Due to the lack of updated literature to cite when referring to the number of Verbenaceae taxa, a review of these estimates is necessary.Key results and conclusion – We present a detailed list of genera currently accepted in Verbenaceae with the number of species contained in each and compare our numbers with the previous estimate. In addition, we indicate the geographic distribution and the most recent important taxonomic or phylogenetic works for each genus. Our compilation shows that Verbenaceae have 32 genera and 800 species currently accepted.This work provides up-to-date numbers and brings a holistic view of the family.
Resumo Apresenta-se um estudo taxonômico da família Verbenaceae na Serra Negra, região incluída no Complexo da Mantiqueira, situada ao sul da Zona da Mata de Minas Gerais, Brasil. São encontrados quatro gêneros e cinco espécies: Lantana camara, L. fucata, Lippia origanoides, Stachytarpheta mexiae e Verbena rigida. É apresentado o primeiro registro de S. mexiae para o Domínio Atlântico. São incluídos chave de identificação, descrições, ilustrações, comentários taxonômicos, ecológicos e de distribuição geográfica para as espécies.
The Stachytarpheta longispicata complex is a group of seven accepted infraspecific taxa endemic to the Brazilian Cerrado, defined by its pedicellate flowers with salmon or dark red corollas. Due to the great morphological variation and very brief original descriptions, these taxa have controversial circumscriptions. We evaluated the morphological variation through the morphometric analysis of 11 natural populations in addition to nomenclatural types to assess the current infraspecific circumscriptions and clarify the limits of these taxa. A set of 36 continuous vegetative and reproductive characters was measured for each of the 115 specimens sampled, encompassing the morphological variability in the group and its geographic distribution. A compiled data matrix formed the basis for the multivariate analysis (UPGMA, PCA, and DA). Our results recovered five consistent groups corresponding to the four subspecies, and all three recognised varieties treated in the same morphological group. Quantitative and qualitative characters not previously studied in detail are important to delimit the five groups. A taxonomic rearrangement is proposed for the complex, circumscribing five distinct species: Stachytarpheta brevibracteata, S. longipedicellata, S. longispicata, S. minasensis, and S. ratteri. The taxonomic treatment includes four new combinations and names at new rank, two new synonyms, and one lectotype. Descriptions, an identification key, geographical distribution map, illustrations, and provisional conservation assessments are also provided.
The shortage of reliable primary taxonomic data limits the description of biological taxa and the understanding of biodiversity patterns and processes, complicating biogeographical, ecological, and evolutionary studies. This deficit creates a significant taxonomic impediment to biodiversity research and conservation planning. The taxonomic impediment and the biodiversity crisis are widely recognized, highlighting the urgent need for reliable taxonomic data. Over the past decade, numerous countries worldwide have devoted considerable effort to Target 1 of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC), which called for the preparation of a working list of all known plant species by 2010 and an online world Flora by 2020. Brazil is a megadiverse country, home to more of the world's known plant species than any other country. Despite that, Flora Brasiliensis, concluded in 1906, was the last comprehensive treatment of the Brazilian flora. The lack of accurate estimates of the number of species of algae, fungi, and plants occurring in Brazil contributes to the prevailing taxonomic impediment and delays progress towards the GSPC targets. Over the past 12 years, a legion of taxonomists motivated to meet Target 1 of the GSPC, worked together to gather and integrate knowledge on the algal, plant, and fungal diversity of Brazil. Overall, a team of about 980 taxonomists joined efforts in a highly collaborative project that used cybertaxonomy to prepare an updated Flora of Brazil, showing the power of scientific collaboration to reach ambitious goals. This paper presents an overview of the Brazilian Flora 2020 and provides taxonomic and spatial updates on the algae, fungi, and plants found in one of the world's most biodiverse countries. We further identify collection gaps and summarize future goals that extend beyond 2020. Our results show that Brazil is home to 46,975 native species of algae, fungi, and plants, of which 19,669 are endemic to the country. The data compiled to date suggests that the Atlantic Rainforest might be the most diverse Brazilian domain for all plant groups except gymnosperms, which are most diverse in the Amazon. However, scientific knowledge of Brazilian diversity is still unequally distributed, with the Atlantic Rainforest and the Cerrado being the most intensively sampled and studied biomes in the country. In times of “scientific reductionism”, with botanical and mycological sciences suffering pervasive depreciation in recent decades, the first online Flora of Brazil 2020 significantly enhanced the quality and quantity of taxonomic data available for algae, fungi, and plants from Brazil. This project also made all the information freely available online, providing a firm foundation for future research and for the management, conservation, and sustainable use of the Brazilian funga and flora.
This study showed that the antigen rapid test for COVID19 worked fine using nasal swabs when it was utilized in patients infected with the Omicron variant, showing a concordance with PCR in 93% of patients tested. The nasal swab yielded more reliable results than the oral swab when an antigen rapid diagnosis test (the Panbio COVID-19 antigen rapid diagnostic test) was used in patients infected with the Omicron variant.
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