Species occurrence records provide the basis for many biodiversity studies. They derive from georeferenced specimens deposited in natural history collections and visual observations, such as those obtained through various mobile applications. Given the rapid increase in availability of such data, the control of quality and accuracy constitutes a particular concern. Automatic filtering is a scalable and reproducible means to identify potentially problematic records and tailor datasets from public databases such as the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF; http://www.gbif.org), for biodiversity analyses. However, it is unclear how much data may be lost by filtering, whether the same filters should be applied across all taxonomic groups, and what the effect of filtering is on common downstream analyses. Here, we evaluate the effect of 13 recently proposed filters on the inference of species richness patterns and automated conservation assessments for 18 Neotropical taxa, including terrestrial and marine animals, fungi, and plants downloaded from GBIF. We find that a total of 44.3% of the records are potentially problematic, with large variation across taxonomic groups (25–90%). A small fraction of records was identified as erroneous in the strict sense (4.2%), and a much larger proportion as unfit for most downstream analyses (41.7%). Filters of duplicated information, collection year, and basis of record, as well as coordinates in urban areas, or for terrestrial taxa in the sea or marine taxa on land, have the greatest effect. Automated filtering can help in identifying problematic records, but requires customization of which tests and thresholds should be applied to the taxonomic group and geographic area under focus. Our results stress the importance of thorough recording and exploration of the meta-data associated with species records for biodiversity research.
28Species occurrence records provide the basis for many biodiversity studies. They derive from geo-referenced specimens deposited in natural history collections and visual observations, such as those obtained through various mobile applications. Given the rapid increase in availability of such data, the control of quality and accuracy constitutes a particular concern. Automatic flagging and filtering are a scalable and reproducible means to identify potentially problematic records in datasets from public databases such as the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF; www.gbif.org). However, it is unclear how much data may be lost by filtering, whether the same tests should be applied across all taxonomic groups, and what is the effect of filtering for common downstream analyses. Here, we evaluate the effect of 13 recently proposed filters on the inference of species richness patterns and automated conservation assessments for 18 Neotropical taxa including animals, fungi, and plants, terrestrial and marine, downloaded from GBIF. We find that 29-90% of the records are potentially erroneous, with large variation across taxonomic groups. Tests for duplicated information, collection year, basis of record as well as urban areas and coordinates for terrestrial taxa in the sea or marine taxa on land have the greatest effect. While many flagged records might not be de facto erroneous, they could be overly imprecise and increase uncertainty in downstream analyses. Automated flagging can help in identifying problematic records, but requires customization of which tests and thresholds should be applied to the taxonomic group and geographic area under focus. Our results stress the importance of thorough exploration of the meta-data associated with species records for biodiversity research. 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44Publicly available species distribution data have become a crucial resource in biodiversity research, including studies in 46 ecology, biogeography, systematics and conservation biology. In particular, the availability of digitized collections from 47 museums and herbaria, and citizen science observations has increased drastically over the last few years. As of today, 48 the largest public aggregator for geo-referenced species occurrences data, the Global Biodiversity Information Facility 49 (www.gbif.org), provides access to more than 1.3 billion geo-referenced occurrence records for species from across the 50 globe and the tree of life. 51A central challenge to the use of these publicly available species occurrence data in research are erroneous geographic 52 coordinates (Anderson et al. 2016). Errors mostly arise because public databases integrate records collected with 53 different methodologies in different places, at different times; often without centralized curation and only rudimentary 54 meta-data. For instance, erroneous coordinates caused by data-entry errors or automated geo-referencing from vague 55 locality descriptions are common (Maldonado et al. 2015; Yesson et al. 2007)...
We estimated phylogenetic relationships of Polygala inferred from nrITS, matK-trnK, trnL intron, trnL-trnF intergenic spacer, and rbcL sequence data, with emphasis on the New World clade. Our results did not support the New World and Old World clades as sister groups in Polygala. Relationships among Polygala and allied genera are being discussed, with the recovered clades compared to those of the current taxonomic delimitations. A biogeographic analysis using an ultrametric phylogenetic tree and calibrated with the fossil Paleosecuridaca as well as a reconstruction of the ancestral area are also provided.
Epiphytes are hyper‐diverse and one of the frequently undervalued life forms in plant surveys and biodiversity inventories. Epiphytes of the Atlantic Forest, one of the most endangered ecosystems in the world, have high endemism and radiated recently in the Pliocene. We aimed to (1) compile an extensive Atlantic Forest data set on vascular, non‐vascular plants (including hemiepiphytes), and lichen epiphyte species occurrence and abundance; (2) describe the epiphyte distribution in the Atlantic Forest, in order to indicate future sampling efforts. Our work presents the first epiphyte data set with information on abundance and occurrence of epiphyte phorophyte species. All data compiled here come from three main sources provided by the authors: published sources (comprising peer‐reviewed articles, books, and theses), unpublished data, and herbarium data. We compiled a data set composed of 2,095 species, from 89,270 holo/hemiepiphyte records, in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay, recorded from 1824 to early 2018. Most of the records were from qualitative data (occurrence only, 88%), well distributed throughout the Atlantic Forest. For quantitative records, the most common sampling method was individual trees (71%), followed by plot sampling (19%), and transect sampling (10%). Angiosperms (81%) were the most frequently registered group, and Bromeliaceae and Orchidaceae were the families with the greatest number of records (27,272 and 21,945, respectively). Ferns and Lycophytes presented fewer records than Angiosperms, and Polypodiaceae were the most recorded family, and more concentrated in the Southern and Southeastern regions. Data on non‐vascular plants and lichens were scarce, with a few disjunct records concentrated in the Northeastern region of the Atlantic Forest. For all non‐vascular plant records, Lejeuneaceae, a family of liverworts, was the most recorded family. We hope that our effort to organize scattered epiphyte data help advance the knowledge of epiphyte ecology, as well as our understanding of macroecological and biogeographical patterns in the Atlantic Forest. No copyright restrictions are associated with the data set. Please cite this Ecology Data Paper if the data are used in publication and teaching events.
Resumo Apresenta-se um estudo taxonômico da família Verbenaceae na Serra Negra, região incluída no Complexo da Mantiqueira, situada ao sul da Zona da Mata de Minas Gerais, Brasil. São encontrados quatro gêneros e cinco espécies: Lantana camara, L. fucata, Lippia origanoides, Stachytarpheta mexiae e Verbena rigida. É apresentado o primeiro registro de S. mexiae para o Domínio Atlântico. São incluídos chave de identificação, descrições, ilustrações, comentários taxonômicos, ecológicos e de distribuição geográfica para as espécies.
Digital accessible knowledge of biodiversity data is an increasingly important source of information in studies of biogeography and conservation. These databases can also reveal temporal, spatial and taxonomical gaps in biodiversity documentation, even in areas that have been intensively studied and from where accurate species lists are available. Therefore, revealing these gaps may help allocating collecting efforts, conservation priorities and strategies for improving database curation. Here, we evaluate potential shortfalls for flowering plants in a tropical hotspot, the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, by cross‐referencing two online repositories of biodiversity data (the Global Biodiversity Information Facility – GBIF – and the Brazilian Flora 2020 floristic database – BFG). We aimed to evaluate the congruence between those repositories, highlighting tendencies in current documentation for this area. We found that from the 7220 reported flowering plant species endemics to the Atlantic Forest, 1573 (22%) have no valid spatial data in GBIF, and 75% of all of the 605,951 records do not present valid spatial information. Most of the missing information is related to species known only from few and old collections with absent or inaccurately georeferenced data. This lack of information may cause a large impact in spatial studies, especially for rare and threatened species. Nevertheless, our analysis also shows that spatial information for the filtered data is highly congruent between GBIF and BFG data, indicating relatively high availability of quality data in large repositories after standard and automatized cleaning procedures. Still, good practices to decrease the impact of losing data are recommended, including more investment in field collections, targeting poorly known species and returning cleaned spatial datasets to online repositories after taxonomic revisions.
The shortage of reliable primary taxonomic data limits the description of biological taxa and the understanding of biodiversity patterns and processes, complicating biogeographical, ecological, and evolutionary studies. This deficit creates a significant taxonomic impediment to biodiversity research and conservation planning. The taxonomic impediment and the biodiversity crisis are widely recognized, highlighting the urgent need for reliable taxonomic data. Over the past decade, numerous countries worldwide have devoted considerable effort to Target 1 of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC), which called for the preparation of a working list of all known plant species by 2010 and an online world Flora by 2020. Brazil is a megadiverse country, home to more of the world's known plant species than any other country. Despite that, Flora Brasiliensis, concluded in 1906, was the last comprehensive treatment of the Brazilian flora. The lack of accurate estimates of the number of species of algae, fungi, and plants occurring in Brazil contributes to the prevailing taxonomic impediment and delays progress towards the GSPC targets. Over the past 12 years, a legion of taxonomists motivated to meet Target 1 of the GSPC, worked together to gather and integrate knowledge on the algal, plant, and fungal diversity of Brazil. Overall, a team of about 980 taxonomists joined efforts in a highly collaborative project that used cybertaxonomy to prepare an updated Flora of Brazil, showing the power of scientific collaboration to reach ambitious goals. This paper presents an overview of the Brazilian Flora 2020 and provides taxonomic and spatial updates on the algae, fungi, and plants found in one of the world's most biodiverse countries. We further identify collection gaps and summarize future goals that extend beyond 2020. Our results show that Brazil is home to 46,975 native species of algae, fungi, and plants, of which 19,669 are endemic to the country. The data compiled to date suggests that the Atlantic Rainforest might be the most diverse Brazilian domain for all plant groups except gymnosperms, which are most diverse in the Amazon. However, scientific knowledge of Brazilian diversity is still unequally distributed, with the Atlantic Rainforest and the Cerrado being the most intensively sampled and studied biomes in the country. In times of “scientific reductionism”, with botanical and mycological sciences suffering pervasive depreciation in recent decades, the first online Flora of Brazil 2020 significantly enhanced the quality and quantity of taxonomic data available for algae, fungi, and plants from Brazil. This project also made all the information freely available online, providing a firm foundation for future research and for the management, conservation, and sustainable use of the Brazilian funga and flora.
A Serra Negra é um fragmento do Complexo da Mantiqueira, localizado entre os municípios de Lima Duarte, Santa Bárbara do Monte Verde, Rio Preto e Olaria, com altitudes variando entre 800 e 1700m. A vegetação apresenta um mosaico composto por florestas e ambientes campestres, destacando-se o campo rupestre por toda a amplitude altimétrica. Um amplo estudo florístico foi realizado entre os anos de 2003 e 2014, e os espécimes coletados foram depositados no Herbário Leopoldo Krieger (CESJ), da Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora. O objetivo do presente estudo foi realizar um inventário florístico e taxonômico para a família Ericaceae da Serra Negra. Foram registradas oito espécies pertencentes a três gêneros, sendo Agarista e Gaylussacia os mais ricos, com quatro e três espécies respectivamente, e Gaultheria representado por apenas uma espécie. São apresentadas chaves de identificação, descrições das espécies, ilustrações de caracteres diagnósticos e comentários de distribuição geográfica, ecológicos e taxonômicos. Palavras-chave: Complexo da Mantiqueira, Floresta Atlântica, campo rupestre, flora. AbstractSerra Negra is a fragment of the Mantiqueira Range located among Lima Duarte, Santa Bárbara do Monte Verde, Rio Preto and Olaria, with altitudes between 800 and 1700 m. The vegetation is represented by a mosaic of forests and field environments, of which the "campo rupestre" must be highlighted, due to its occurrence in the whole altitudinal range in the area. A wide floristic study was conducted between the years 2003 and 2014 and the collected specimens were deposited in the Herbarium Leopoldo Krieger (CESJ), of the Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora. The aim of the present study was to conduct a floristic and taxonomic inventory to the family Ericaceae of the Serra Negra. It were recorded eight species belonging to three genera, of which Gaylussacia and Agarista were the richest, with four and three species, respectively, and Gaultheria represented by just one species. Identification keys, descriptions, illustrations of diagnostic characters, and comments of geographic distribution, ecological and taxonomic are provided.
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