RESUMO.-Este estudo teve o objetivo de descrever a origem e ramificação dos nervos de vinte plexos braquiais de cachorro-do-mato (Cerdocyon thous). Dez animais da espé-cie, obtidos post mortem por atropelamento em rodovias, foram utilizados para o estudo, de acordo com a autorização do IBAMA/SISBIO nº33667-1. This study aimed to describe the origin and branching of nerves from twenty brachial plexuses of crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous). Ten animals of the species, obtained post mortem from being run over on highways, were used for the study, in accordance with the authorization from IBAMA / SISBIO No. 33667-1. Once collected, the cadavers were fixed in 50% formaldehyde and kept for at least 14 days in a solution of 10% formaldehyde before dissections. After removal of skin, incisions in breast muscles and reflection of thoracic limbs allowed access to axillary space and the nerves could have trajects dissected individually to each muscle insertion. To improve visualization of the cervical and thoracic ventral roots that originated every single nerve, muscles that covered the intervertebral foramina, transverse processes and vertebral bodies were removed ventrally and the spinal cord exposed. Schematic drawings and photographic records documented the origin and branching of nerves. The twenty plexuses were resulted from connections between the ventral branches of the last three cervical spinal nerves (C6, C7 and C8) and first thoracic (T1). These branches derived the nerves suprascapular, subscapular, axillary, musculocutaneous, radial, median and ulnar to the intrinsic muscles and brachiocephalic, thoracodorsal, lateral thoracic, long thoracic, cranial and caudal pectoral nerves to the extrinsic muscles of the thoracic limb. It was found that the ventral rami of C7 were the main contributors in the formation of nerves (61.5%), followed by C8 (55.4%), T1 (41.2%) and C6 (30.8%). The t-test comparison between means at a significance level of 5% showed no differences in the origin of plexus when compared antimeres and sexes. Of the total of 260 dissected nerves, 68.8% originated by the combination of two or three roots, while only 31.2% were formed by a single root. The combination between C8 and T1 was the most frequent origin of nerves to the plexus (23.8%) in this species. Comparing the origin, branching and innervation area of the brachial plexus in C. thous with other domestic and wild species, there was a greater similarity with the domestic dog. These results may give the anatomical basis to diagnosis of neuromuscular disorders, anesthetic blocks techniques and comparative morphofunctional analyzes involving this species.INDEX TERMS: Brachial plexus, morphology, wild carnivores, animal anatomy, Cerdocyon thous.
Twenty thoracic limbs of ten Lycalopex gymnocercus were dissected to describe origin and distribution of the nerves forming brachial plexuses. The brachial plexus resulted from the connections between the ventral branches of the last three cervical nerves (C6, C7, and C8) and first thoracic nerve (T1). These branches connected the suprascapular, subscapular, axillary, musculocutaneous, radial, median and ulnar nerves to the intrinsic musculature and connected the brachiocephalic, thoracodorsal, lateral thoracic, long thoracic, cranial pectoral and caudal pectoral nerves to the extrinsic musculature. The C7 ventral branches contribute most to the formation of the nerves (62.7%), followed by C8 (58.8%), T1 (40.0%) and C6 (24.6%). Of the 260 nerves dissected, 69.2% resulted from a combination of two or three branches, while only 30.8% originated from a single branch. The origin and innervation area of the pampas fox brachial plexus, in comparison with other domestic and wild species, were most similar to the domestic dog and wild canids from the neotropics. The results of this study can serve as a base for comparative morphofunctional analysis involving this species and development of nerve block techniques. Anat Rec, 300:537-548, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Morphology studies provide knowledge that allows us to understand how animals interact with their natural environment or in captivity. In this context, comparative anatomy on the formation of the brachial plexus has been a matter of interest since the 19th century, and remains one of the most intriguing topics of contemporary anatomy. The aim of this study was to describe the origin and the antimeric distribution of the brachial plexus nerves in Macaca mulatta, as well as the muscles innervated by it. Ten male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were used. Animals came from the Laboratory Animals Breeding Centre (Cecal/Fiocruz), and were donated to the Animal Anatomy Department of the Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro. Specimens were fixed in formaldehyde by infusion of a 10% solution. They were subsequently kept in low-density polythene containers with 500 L of 30% formaldehyde over a period of 12 months. In 11 plexus (55%) the resulting nerves were constituted by the connections between the ventral spinal branches C5, C6, C7, C8 and T1. In five plexus (25%), the participant roots were C4, C5, C6, C7, C8, T1 and T2. In two (10%) plexus, they were C5, C6, C7, C8, T1 and T2. In the other two (10%) plexus it was observed to be formed from C6, C7, C8, T1 and T2. The ventral branches formed three nerve trunks: cranial, middle and caudal. The suprascapular, subscapular, axillary, musculocutaneous, radial, median and ulnar nerves innervated the intrinsic muscles. The subclavian, thoracodorsal, medial cutaneous nerve of the arm and forearm, long thoracic, cranial pectoral and caudal pectoral innervated extrinsic muscles. Results obtained in this study contribute to the field of comparative anatomy of primates, and provide information for applied research, serving as a basis for clinical and surgical procedures that use this species as a model animal.
The characteristics of the muscles of the thoracic limb were evaluated in 22 specimens of Lycalopex gymnocercus. Descriptive and comparative analyses showed similarity with other canids in terms of topography and tendon insertions. Differences with the domestic dog were observed in the pectoralis profundus, triceps brachii and interflexorii muscles. Intraspecific variations were observed in the rhomboideus capitis, serratus ventralis cervicis, extensor carpi radialis, extensor digiti I and II, lumbricales, flexor digiti I brevis, abductor digiti I brevis, and flexor digiti V muscles. The analyses of muscle architecture carried out in nine specimens showed that there was no difference in muscle percentage mass in the thoracic limb of males and females, but a young specimen showed significant lower percentage mass. The triceps brachii caput longus muscle showed the greatest mass, the subscapularis muscle showed the greatest physiological cross‐sectional area value, and the extrinsic muscles, in general, presented the longest fascicles and higher architectural indexes. Muscle architecture data were compatible with those of a thoracic limb adapted to fast cursorial locomotion that prioritizes movements in a sagittal plane instead of rotation or adduction/abduction. There was a high association between functional percentage mass of the muscles in the thoracic limb and phylogeny in the Carnivora order. It may be inferred that carnivoran muscle mass is largely determined by phylogeny.
The aim of this study was to characterize the renal morphology and anatomical variations of the renal pedicle in domestic shorthaired cats. Dissections were performed in 40 adult cats, obtained from the necropsy unit without macroscopic renal pathology. Kidney dimensions (length, width, and thickness) and the length and origin of the renal arteries and main branches were measured. The length, width and thickness of the right kidney (cm) were 3.83±0.46, 2.42±0.22, and 2.22±0.33 in males, and 3.61±0.53, 2.28±0.38, and 2.13±0.40 in females, respectively. In the left kidney, these measures were 3.82±0.32, 2.48±0.31, and 2.37±0.32 in males, and 3.48±0.47, 2.39±0.26, and 2.15±0.34 in females, respectively. The left kidneys of males were significantly bigger than those of females. There was a positive linear correlation between the rostrum-sacral length and ellipsoid volume of the left kidney only in males. Most of the kidneys were situated ventrally between the third to fifth lumbar vertebras. The right renal artery was situated ventrally to third lumbar vertebra and the left artery to the fourth. The results of the present study contribute to the field of comparative and applied anatomy. 3,83 ± 0,46, 2,42 ± 0,22 e 2,22 ± 0,33 em machos e 3,61 ± 0,53, 2,28 ± 0,38 e 2,13 ± 0,40 em fêmeas, respectivamente. No rim esquerdo, essas medidas foram 3,82 ± 0,32, 2,48 ± 0,31 e 2,37 ± 0,32 em machos e 3,48 ± 0,47, 2,39 ± 0,26 e 2,15 ± 0,34 Keywords: domestic feline, renal measures, vascularization RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar a morfologia renal e as variações anatômicas do pedículo renal em gatos de pelo curto brasileiro. As dissecções foram realizadas em 40 gatos adultos, obtidos de necropsias sem evidência de patologia renal macroscópica. Medidas renais (comprimento, largura e espessura), comprimento e origem das artérias renais e ramos principais foram obtidos. O comprimento, a largura e a espessura do rim direito (cm) foram
Resumo: Cerdocyon thous (cachorro-do-mato) é o canídeo silvestre mais comum em território sul-americano. Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho descrever a morfologia macroscópica, microscópica e comparada da laringe nesta espécie. Para tal, as laringes de dezesseis espécimes (quatro machos e doze fêmeas) foram analisadas quanto à topografia, forma, morfometria, musculatura intrínseca e histologia. A laringe dispôs-se ventralmente ao áxis e foi constituída por uma cartilagem tireoide e outra cricoide (hialinas), uma epiglótica (elástica) e um par de ariteoides (mistas). Um par de cartilagens sesamoides foi identificado entre os processos corniculados e a lâmina da cricoide. A morfometria revelou que a tireoide é a maior cartilagem. Não houve sinais definitivos de dimorfismo sexual na laringe de C. thous. O epitélio predominante foi do tipo pavimentoso estratificado o qual sofreu transição para pseudoestratificado cilíndrico ciliado ao nível do terço caudal da tireoide e rostral da cricoide. A laringe de C. thous mostrou semelhança com a do cão doméstico, ainda que o formato das cartilagens tenha apresentado diferenças.
ResumoO bloqueio anestésico do nervo alveolar inferior é a técnica mais indicada para procedimentos cirúrgicos nos dentes inferiores e mandíbula de animais e seres humanos. Sua execução depende do conhecimento da topografia do forame mandibular da espécie abordada. Este estudo realizou mensurações de 6 pontos de referência anatômica em 20 hemimandíbulas de 10 cadáveres adultos (3 machos e 7 fêmeas) de cachorro-do-mato, para estabelecer a topografia do forame mandibular e, assim, oferecer subsídios para o bloqueio do nervo alveolar inferior nessa espécie. Houve uma variação significativa (p = 0,05) no posicionamento do forame em relação à borda ventral da mandíbula entre indivíduos de sexos diferentes. Não houve variação entre antímeros. Os resultados indicam que 20,4 mm da agulha devem ser introduzidos obliquamente a partir do processo angular e 12,1 mm (fêmeas) ou 13,6 mm (machos) perpendicularmente a partir da borda ventral da mandíbula, para que o anestésico seja administrado próximo ao forame mandibular e, desse modo, tenha maior chance de proporcionar o bloqueio pretendido. Foram observadas diferenças entre cães domésticos e cachorro-do-mato quanto à forma e topografia de pontos de referência empregados em técnicas de bloqueio, especialmente na localização mais rostral do forame mandibular no Cerdocyon thous. Palavras-chave: Anatomia animal; Cachorro-do-mato; Canídeos silvestres; Nervo alveolar inferior Abstract Morphometrics of the mandibular foramen of Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766) (crab-eating-fox).Anesthetic block of the inferior alveolar nerve is the most indicated technique for surgical procedures in the lower teeth and jaw of animals and human beings. Its execution depends on knowing the topography of the mandibular foramen in the species addressed. This study performed measurements in 6 anatomical reference sites in 20 hemimandibles of 10 adult cadavers (3 males and 7 females) of crab-eating-fox, in order to establish the topography of the mandibular foramen and, thus, provide support for blocking the inferior alveolar nerve in this species. There was a significant variation (p = 0.05) in the foramen position with regard to the ventral border of the jaw among individuals of both sexes. There was no significant variation among antimers. The
ABSTRACT. The brachioradialis is an important muscle that acts in the external rotation of the forearm (supination). However, its occurrence is controversial and little studied in the order Carnivora. Thus, this study investigates the occurrence and anatomo-functional arrangement of this muscle in wild carnivorans species. Fifty-eight thoracic limbs of specimens from species of Canidae, Procyonidae, Mustelidae and Felidae were dissected. Measurements of the length of the muscle (ML), the length of the forearm (FL), latero-medial width of the muscle (MW) and the lateral-medial diameter of the forearm (FD) were obtained to establish the ratios MW/FD and ML/FL in order to investigate the relative proportion of the muscle in relation to the forearm of each species. The brachioradialis muscle was identified in all species, although it was unilaterally or bilaterally absent in some canid individuals. The ratios demonstrated significant differences in the anatomical proportions among the families, with greater functional importance in the mustelids, procyonids, and felids because of a set of elaborate movements in the thoracic limb of representatives of these families when compared to canids. KEY WORDS. Comparative anatomy; forelimb; myology.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers
Part of the Research Solutions Family.