Abstract(R)-Lacosamide ((R)-2, (R)-N-benzyl 2-acetamido-3-methoxypropionamide), has recently gained regulatory approval for the treatment of partial-onset seizures in adults. Whole animal pharmacological studies have documented that (R)-2 function is unique. A robust strategy is advanced for the discovery of interacting proteins associated with function and toxicity of (R)-2 through the use of (R)-2 analogs, 3, that contain "affinity bait (AB)" and "chemical reporter (CR)" functional groups. In 3, covalent modification of the interacting proteins proceeds at the AB moiety, and detection or isolation of the selectively captured protein occurs through the bioorthogonal CR group upon reaction with an appropriate probe. We report the synthesis, pharmacological evaluation, and interrogation of the mouse soluble brain proteome using 3 where the AB group is an isothiocyanate moiety. One compound, (R)-N-(4-isothiocyanato)benzyl 2-acetamido-3-(prop-2-ynyloxy) propionamide ((R)-9), exhibited excellent seizure protection in mice and, like (R)-2, anticonvulsant activity principally resided in the (R)-stereoisomer. Several proteins were preferentially labeled by (R)-9 compared with (S)-9, including collapsin response mediator protein 2.
An extremely well-preserved dinosaur (Cf. Edmontosaurus sp.) found in the Hell Creek Formation (Upper Cretaceous, North Dakota) retains soft-tissue replacement structures and associated organic compounds. Mineral cements precipitated in the skin apparently follow original cell boundaries, partially preserving epidermis microstructure. Infrared and electron microprobe images of ossified tendon clearly show preserved mineral zonation, with silica and trapped carbon dioxide forming thin linings on Haversian canals within apatite. Furthermore, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of materials recovered from the skin and terminal ungual phalanx suggests the presence of compounds containing amide groups. Amino acid composition analyses of the mineralized skin envelope clearly differ from the surrounding matrix; however, intact proteins could not be obtained using protein mass spectrometry. The presence of endogenously derived organics from the skin was further demonstrated by pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry (Py-GCMS), indicating survival and presence of macromolecules that were in part aliphatic (see the electronic supplementary material).
Pythium insidiosum is a human-pathogenic oomycete. Many patients infected with it lose organs or die. Toward the goal of developing improved treatment options, we want to understand how Py. insidiosum has evolved to become a successful human pathogen. Our approach here involved the use of comparative genomic and other analyses to identify genes with possible functions in the pathogenicity of Py. insidiosum. We generated an Oomycete Gene Table and used it to explore the genome contents and phylogenomic relationships of Py. insidiosum and 19 other oomycetes. Initial sequence analyses showed that Py. insidiosum is closely related to Pythium species that are not pathogenic to humans. Our analyses also indicated that the organism harbours secreted and adhesin-like proteins, which are absent from related species. Putative virulence proteins were identified by comparison to a set of known virulence genes. Among them is the urease Ure1, which is absent from humans and thus a potential diagnostic and therapeutic target. We used mass spectrometric data to successfully validate the expression of 30% of 14,962 predicted proteins and identify 15 body temperature (37 °C)-dependent proteins of Py. insidiosum. This work begins to unravel the determinants of pathogenicity of Py. insidiosum.
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), a common primary malignant tumor of bile duct epithelia, is highly prevalent in Asian countries and unresponsive to chemotherapeutic drugs. Thus, a newly recognized biological entity for early diagnosis and treatment is highly needed. Exosomes are small membrane bound vesicles found in body fluids and released by most cell types including cancer cells. The vesicles contain specific subset of proteins and nucleic acids corresponding to cell types and play essential roles in pathophysiological processes. The present study aimed to assess the protein profiles of CCA-derived exosomes and their potential roles. We have isolated exosomes from CCA cells namely KKU-M213 and KKU-100 derived from Thai patients and their roles were investigated by incubation with normal human cholangiocyte (H69) cells. Exosomes were internalized into H69 cells and had no effects on viability or proliferation of the host cells. Interestingly, the exosomes from KKU-M213 cells only induced migration and invasion of H69 cells. Proteomic analysis of the exosomes from KKU-M213 cells disclosed multiple cancer related proteins that are not present in H69 exosomes. Consistent with the protein profile, treatment with KKU-M213 exosomes induced β-catenin and reduced E-cadherin expressions in H69 cells. Collectively, our results suggest that a direct cell-to-cell transfer of oncogenic proteins via exosomal pathway may be a novel mechanism for CCA progression and metastasis.
The emergence of multidrug-resistant enterococci (MDRE) and particularly vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) is considered a serious health problem worldwide, causing the need for new antimicrobials. The aim of this study was to discover and characterize bacteriocin against clinical isolates of MDRE and VRE. Over 10,000 bacterial isolates from water, environment and clinical samples were screened. E. faecalis strain 478 isolated from human feces produced the highest antibacterial activity against several MDRE and VRE strains. The optimum condition for bacteriocin production was cultivation in MRS broth at 37°C, pH 5–6 for 16 hours. The bacteriocin-like substance produced from E. faecalis strain EF478 was stable at 60°C for at least 1 hour and retained its antimicrobial activity after storage at -20°C for 1 year, at 4°C for 6 months, and at 25°C for 2 months. A nano-HPLC electrospray ionization multi-stage tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-ESI-MS/MS) analysis showed that the amino acid sequences of the bacteriocin-like substance was similar to serine protease of E. faecalis, gi|488296663 (NCBI database), which has never been reported as a bacteriocin. This study reported a novel bacteriocin with high antibacterial activity against VRE and MDRE.
Vespa affinis (Asian wasp, Thai banded tiger wasp, or local name: Tor Hua Seua) causes the most frequent incidence of medically important Hymenoptera sting in South and Southeast Asia. However, data on the venom components attributable to the sting derived-clinical manifestations (local reactions, IgE mediated-anaphylaxis, or systemic envenomation) are lacking. This study provides the first set information on V. affinis venom proteome, allergenome, and IgE reactivity of individual venom components. From 2DE-gel based-proteomics, the venom revealed 93 protein spots, of which proteins in 51 spots could be identified and classified into three groups: typical venom components and structural and housekeeping proteins. Venom proteins in 32 spots reacted with serum IgE of wasp allergic patients. Major allergenic proteins that reacted to IgE of >50% of the wasp allergic patients included PLA1 (100%), arginine kinase (73%), heat shock 70 kDa protein (73.3%), venom allergen-5 (66.7%), enolase (66.7%), PLA1 magnifin (60%), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (60%), hyaluronidase (53.3%), and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase (53.3%). The venom minor allergens were GB17876 transcript (40%), GB17291 transcript (20%), malic enzyme (13.3%), aconitate hydratase (6.7%), and phosphoglucomutase (6.7%). The information has diagnostic and clinical implications for future improvement of case diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, component-resolve diagnosis, and design of specific Hymenoptera venom immunotherapy.
Venomous snakebites are an important health problem in tropical and subtropical countries. King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) is the largest venomous snake found in South and Southeast Asia. In this study, the O. hannah venom proteome and the venom components cross-reactive to N. kaouthia monospecific antivenin were studied. O. hannah venom consisted of 14 different protein families, including three finger toxins, phospholipases, cysteine-rich secretory proteins, cobra venom factor, muscarinic toxin, L-amino acid oxidase, hypothetical proteins, low cysteine protein, phosphodiesterase, proteases, vespryn toxin, Kunitz, growth factor activators and others (coagulation factor, endonuclease, 5’-nucleotidase). N. kaouthia antivenin recognized several functionally different O. hannah venom proteins and mediated paratherapeutic efficacy by rescuing the O. hannah envenomed mice from lethality. An engineered human ScFv specific to N. kaouthia long neurotoxin (NkLN-HuScFv) cross-neutralized the O. hannah venom and extricated the O. hannah envenomed mice from death in a dose escalation manner. Homology modeling and molecular docking revealed that NkLN-HuScFv interacted with residues in loops 2 and 3 of the neurotoxins of both snake species, which are important for neuronal acetylcholine receptor binding. The data of this study are useful for snakebite treatment when and where the polyspecific antivenin is not available. Because the supply of horse-derived antivenin is limited and the preparation may cause some adverse effects in recipients, a cocktail of recombinant human ScFvs for various toxic venom components shared by different venomous snakes, exemplified by the in vitro produced NkLN-HuScFv in this study, should contribute to a possible future route for an improved alternative to the antivenins.
BackgroundSchistosoma mekongi is one of five major causative agents of human schistosomiasis and is endemic to communities along the Mekong River in southern Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Laos) and northern Cambodia. Sporadic cases of schistosomiasis have been reported in travelers and immigrants who have visited endemic areas. Schistosoma mekongi biology and molecular biology is poorly understood, and few S. mekongi gene and transcript sequences are available in public databases.ResultsTranscriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) of male and female S. mekongi adult worms (a total of three biological replicates for each sex) were analyzed and the results demonstrated that approximately 304.9 and 363.3 million high-quality clean reads with quality Q30 (> 90%) were obtained from male and female adult worms, respectively. A total of 119,604 contigs were assembled with an average length of 1273 nt and an N50 of 2017 nt. From the contigs, 20,798 annotated protein sequences and 48,256 annotated transcript sequences were obtained using BLASTP and BLASTX searches against the UniProt Trematoda database. A total of 4658 and 3509 transcripts were predominantly expressed in male and female worms, respectively. Male-biased transcripts were mostly involved in structural organization while female-biased transcripts were typically involved in cell differentiation and egg production. Interestingly, pathway enrichment analysis suggested that genes involved in the phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway may play important roles in the cellular processes and reproductive systems of S. mekongi worms.ConclusionsWe present comparative transcriptomic analyses of male and female S. mekongi adult worms, which provide a global view of the S. mekongi transcriptome as well as insights into differentially-expressed genes associated with each sex. This work provides valuable information and sequence resources for future studies of gene function and for ongoing whole genome sequencing efforts in S. mekongi.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (10.1186/s13071-018-3086-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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