The effect of plasticizers, glycerol, sorbitol and poly(ethylene glycol) 400 (PEG 400), on mechanical and barrier properties of rice starch film has been investigated. Sorbitol‐ and glycerol‐plasticized starch films appeared homogeneous, clear, smooth, and contained less insoluble particles compared to unplasticized rice starch films. PEG 400 did not form plasticized films of suitable characteristics. The softness and stickiness of films improved with increasing concentrations of glycerol and sorbitol. In general, films plasticized with glycerol and sorbitol displayed a better solubility in water than unplasticized films, i.e. 35% (w/w) glycerol and 45% w/w (sorbitol) (optimum solubility). The tensile strength of films decreased especially in the high concentration regime of plasticizers, between 20–45% (w/w) of plasticizer/rice starch film. Through the entire concentration regime, the tensile strength of glycerol‐plasticized films was significantly lower than that of sorbitol‐plasticized films, but their elongation was larger. The water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) through plasticized films and the oxygen transmission rate (OTR) increased with glycerol and sorbitol concentrations, however, glycerol was revealed to be significantly more effective in reducing the tensile strength as well as increasing the WVTR and the OTR compared to sorbitol. With the higher tensile strength and the smaller OTR and WVTR, the 30% sorbitol‐plasticized film reveals an improved coating performance in terms of a reduction of coating failures.
Essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation and two different solvent extractions (petroleum ether and ethanol) from five Zingiberaceae species: ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe.), galanga (Alpinia galanga Sw.), turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), kaempferia (Boesenbergia pandurata Holtt.) and bastard cardamom (Amomum xanthioides Wall.) was characterized. Volatile components of all extracts were analyzed by gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS). The major components of ginger, turmeric, galangal, bastard cardamom and kaempferia were zingiberene, turmerone, methyl chavicol, and γ-terpinene, respectively. Their antibacterial effects towards Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes were tested by a disc diffusion assay. Essential oil of kaempferia and bastard cardamom obtained by hydrodistillation extraction could inhibit growth of all tested bacteria. Essential oil of ginger extracted by hydrodistillation had the highest efficiency against three positive strains of bacteria (S. aureus, B. cereus and L. monocytogenes), with a minimum concentration to inhibit B. cereus and L. monocytogenes of 6.25 mg/mL.
BackgroundBioactive peptides can prevent damage associated with oxidative stress in humans when consumed regularly. Recently, peptides have attracted immense interest because of their beneficial functional properties, safety and little or no side effects when used at high concentration. Most antioxidant peptides are small in size, less than 1 kDa, and contains a high proportion of hydrophobic amino acid. Particularly, tyrosine, leucine, alanine, isoleucine, valine, lysine, phenyalanine, cysteine, methionine and histidine in peptide chain exhibited high antioxidant activity. Mungbean meal protein (MMP) is highly abundant in hydrophobic amino acids. It indicated that MMP might be a good source of antioxidants. Therefore, the objectives were to optimize the conditions used to generate mungbean meal protein hydrolysate (MMPH) with antioxidant activity from bromelain and to investigate the antioxidant activities of different molecular weight (MW) peptide fraction.MethodsResponse Surface Methodology (RSM) was used for screening of the optimal conditions to produce MMPH. After that MMPH was fractionated using ultrafiltration membranes with different MW distributions. Crude-MMPH and four fractions were investigated for five antioxidant activities: 2,2,1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl, superoxide, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and metal ion chelation activity.ResultsThe optimal condition to produce the MMPH was 15% (w/w) of bromelain and hydrolysis time for 12 h which showed the greatest DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity. After mungbean protein from optimal condition was separated based on different molecular weight, the DPPH radical scavenging activity was the highest for the F4 (less than 1 kDa) peptide fraction. Metal ion chelating activity was generally weak, except for the F4 that had a value of 43.94% at a protein concentration of 5 mg/mL. The F4 also exhibited high hydroxyl and superoxide activities (54 and 65.1%), but moderate activity for ferric reducing antioxidant power (0.102 mmole Fe2+/g protein) compared to other peptide fractions and crude-MMPH. Molecular weight and amino acid were the main factors that determined the antioxidant activities of these peptide fractions. Results indicated that F4 had strong antioxidant potentials.DiscussionThe lowest MW fraction (less than 1 kDa) contributed to the highest DPPH, superoxide, hydroxyl and metal chelation activity because influence of low MW and high content of hydrophobic amino acid in peptide chain. Results from this study indicated that MMPH peptides donate protons to free radicals because they had significantly high DPPH value compared to superoxide, hydroxyl and FRAP, which reactions were electron donation. Moreover, MMPH peptides had the ability to inhibit transition metal ions because of highly abundant glutamic acid and aspartic acid in peptide chain.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.