BackgroundRio de Janeiro, Brazil, experienced a severe dengue fever epidemic in 2008. This was the worst epidemic ever, characterized by a sharp increase in case-fatality rate, mainly among younger individuals. A combination of factors, such as climate, mosquito abundance, buildup of the susceptible population, or viral evolution, could explain the severity of this epidemic. The main objective of this study is to model the spatial patterns of dengue seroprevalence in three neighborhoods with different socioeconomic profiles in Rio de Janeiro. As blood sampling coincided with the peak of dengue transmission, we were also able to identify recent dengue infections and visually relate them to Aedes aegypti spatial distribution abundance. We analyzed individual and spatial factors associated with seroprevalence using Generalized Additive Model (GAM).Methodology/Principal FindingsThree neighborhoods were investigated: a central urban neighborhood, and two isolated areas characterized as a slum and a suburban area. Weekly mosquito collections started in September 2006 and continued until March 2008. In each study area, 40 adult traps and 40 egg traps were installed in a random sample of premises, and two infestation indexes calculated: mean adult density and mean egg density. Sera from individuals living in the three neighborhoods were collected before the 2008 epidemic (July through November 2007) and during the epidemic (February through April 2008). Sera were tested for DENV-reactive IgM, IgG, Nested RT-PCR, and Real Time RT-PCR. From the before–after epidemics paired data, we described seroprevalence, recent dengue infections (asymptomatic or not), and seroconversion. Recent dengue infection varied from 1.3% to 14.1% among study areas. The highest IgM seropositivity occurred in the slum, where mosquito abundance was the lowest, but household conditions were the best for promoting contact between hosts and vectors. By fitting spatial GAM we found dengue seroprevalence hotspots located at the entrances of the two isolated communities, which are commercial activity areas with high human movement. No association between recent dengue infection and household's high mosquito abundance was observed in this sample.Conclusions/SignificanceThis study contributes to better understanding the dynamics of dengue in Rio de Janeiro by assessing the relationship between dengue seroprevalence, recent dengue infection, and vector density. In conclusion, the variation in spatial seroprevalence patterns inside the neighborhoods, with significantly higher risk patches close to the areas with large human movement, suggests that humans may be responsible for virus inflow to small neighborhoods in Rio de Janeiro. Surveillance guidelines should be further discussed, considering these findings, particularly the spatial patterns for both human and mosquito populations.
Dengue fever has become the most important vector-borne viral disease in Brazil. Human facilitated transport of desiccation-resistant eggs has led to its two most important vectors, Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus, becoming widespread. In this paper, we report seasonal and spatial variation in larval abundances of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus across a small-scale transition zone between an urban area and an urban wooded/forested area within Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We installed 400 ovitraps across 10 sites with different human population densities and vegetation coverage. Eggs and larvae were collected for three weeks during the wet and dry seasons of 2002 and 2003. Ae. albopictus was predominantly found in the forested areas of the study site whereas in the urbanized area Ae. aegypti was more abundant. Both species peaked during the wet season. This distribution pattern, which may reflect adult flight range, may favor the co-occurrence of larvae of these species in a small-scale urban/urban forest transition zone.
The temporal and spatial evolution of malaria was described for the postfrontier phase of the Brazilian Amazon in 2003–2013. The current ecological study aimed to understand the relationship between spatial population mobility and the distribution of malaria cases. The study identified epidemiologically relevant areas using regional statistical modeling and spatial analyses that considered differential infections and types of work activities. Annual parasite incidence (API) in the region was highest in hotspots along the Amazon River and in the south and west settlement zone of Hiléia, with concentrations in environmental protection areas and açaí and Brazil nut extraction areas. The dispersal force decreased in the Central Amazon due to rapid urbanization and improved socioeconomic conditions for workers in consolidated settlement areas. The study characterized the spatial patterns of disease transmission according to the economic activity and regionalization of geographic areas, confirming that the incidence of infection by work activity and labor flow is linked to extractive activities and agricultural settlements.
Resumo Objetivo: Analisar a adesão da população às medidas de restrição de contato físico e disseminação da COVID-19 no Brasil. Métodos: Inquérito de saúde, realizado pela internet, com amostragem em cadeia, no período de 24 de abril a 24 de maio de 2020. A intensidade da adesão à restrição de contato físico foi analisada segundo características sociodemográficas, utilizando-se modelos de regressão logística para investigar associações com ‘Nenhuma/pouca adesão’. Resultados: Dos 45.161 participantes, 74,2% (73,8-74,6%) relataram intensa adesão às medidas. O grupo que não aderiu às medidas foi composto homens (31,7%), com idade de 30 a 49 anos (36,4%), baixa escolaridade (33,0%), trabalhando durante a pandemia (81,3%), residentes nas regiões Norte (28,1%) e Centro-Oeste (28,5%) do país. Houve importante redução das taxas de crescimento diário, de 45,4 para 5,0%. Conclusão: Grande parte da população brasileira aderiu às medidas de restrição de contato físico, o que, possivelmente, contribuiu para reduzir a disseminação da COVID-19.
Neste trabalho, são relatadas experiências de georreferenciamento de dados de saúde em alguns Municípios brasileiros, analisadas segundo a disponibilidade e atualização de bases cartográficas e o tratamento de dados de endereço nos sistemas de informações em saúde (SIS). A diversidade de estratégias de georreferenciamento de dados no Brasil é resultado das condições particulares de desenvolvimento desses projetos nos Municípios, o que influi na eficiência e precisão da localização dos eventos de saúde. São sugeridas estratégias para captação e armazenamento de dados de endereço nos SIS e sua compatibilização com os cadastros de logradouros existentes, bem como o desenvolvimento de programas e aplicativos que permitam buscas e relacionamentos entre essas duas bases de dados. Palavras-chave: georreferenciamento; sistemas de informações em saúde; cartografia; geoprocessamento.
Leptospirosis displays a great diversity of routes of exposure, reservoirs, etiologic agents, and clinical symptoms. It occurs almost worldwide but its pattern of transmission varies depending where it happens. Climate change may increase the number of cases, especially in developing countries, like Brazil. Spatial analysis studies of leptospirosis have highlighted the importance of socioeconomic and environmental context. Hence, the choice of the geographical scale and unit of analysis used in the studies is pivotal, because it restricts the indicators available for the analysis and may bias the results. In this study, we evaluated which environmental and socioeconomic factors, typically used to characterize the risks of leptospirosis transmission, are more relevant at different geographical scales (i.e., regional, municipal, and local). Geographic Information Systems were used for data analysis. Correlations between leptospirosis incidence and OPEN ACCESS Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 1110367 several socioeconomic and environmental indicators were calculated at different geographical scales. At the regional scale, the strongest correlations were observed between leptospirosis incidence and the amount of people living in slums, or the percent of the area densely urbanized. At the municipal scale, there were no significant correlations. At the local level, the percent of the area prone to flooding best correlated with leptospirosis incidence.
A experiência de mapeamento participativo para a construção de uma alternativa cartográfica para a ESFThe experiment of participatory mapping in order to construct a cartographical alternative to the FHS
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