ResumoNeste trabalho, estimamos os efeitos dos Programas Condicionais de Transferência de Renda (PCTR), no Brasil, sobre a oferta de trabalho de mulheres e homens adultos. Para tanto, utilizamos o painel de municípios que são continuamente cobertos pela Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD/ IBGE) durante o período entre 2001 e 2005. Os efeitos dos PCTR brasileiros são estimados tanto sobre a taxa de participação quanto sobre o número médio de horas trabalhadas. Como a PNAD não investiga diretamente a participação das famílias em PCTR, utilizamos um procedimento indireto para identificar as famílias beneficiárias desses programas. Nossos resultados indicam que os efeitos de interesse não são significativos tanto do ponto de vista estatístico como em termos de magnitude.
Palavras-Chave programas sociais, oferta de trabalho, dados de painel
AbstractIn this paper, we estimate the effects of the Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) programmes in Brazil on the labour supply of adult males and females. We employ the panel of municipalities that are continuously investigated by the Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD/IBGE) over the years . The effects of the Brazilian CCT programmes are estimated both on the participation rate and the mean number of hours worked. Since PNAD does not ask directly surveyed families about CCT programme participation, we use an indirect procedure to identify beneficiary families. Our results indicate that the effects of interest are not significant both on statistical grounds and in terms of magnitude.
* We would like to express our gratitude to Fernando Botelho, Fabio Veras, the editor, and a referee for helpful comments. The paper has also benefited from comments received at the V Meeting of the Society for the Study of Economic Inequality (ECINEQ) in Bari, the 2013 IARIW-IBGE conference on income, wealth and well-being in Rio de Janeiro, and the XXXV Meeting of the Brazilian Econometric Society. The usual disclaimer applies.
This paper investigates the relationship between economic expansion and the degree of formalization for the Brazilian labour market in the recent period. We present a theoretical framework that attempts to explain this relationship through the dynamics of firms hiring strategies. The main predictions are: the share of formal employment rises as the unemployment rate falls, and that the formal-informal wage gap increases, at least at the beginning of the economic expansion. In the empirical part, we use longitudinal microdata from a Brazilian household survey to check whether these two predictions are confirmed. To a large extent our results corroborate both predictions
In this paper we measure inequality of opportunity in daycare and preschool services in Brazil. For this purpose, we construct an opportunity index that modifies the human opportunity index proposed in the literature and used in Barros et al. (2009) to measure inequality in basic opportunities in Latin America and the Caribbean. Specifically, we construct an opportunity measure that includes not only attendance but also parental choice not to enroll children in daycare or preschool, using data from a supplementary questionnaire included in the 2006 version of Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD). The results show that there are large differences between our opportunity index and the human opportunity index for children aged 0-3 years old and considerably smaller differences for children aged 4-6 years old, which suggests that preschool may be closer to a basic opportunity than daycare.
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