The human milk is fundamental for a correct development of newborns, as it is a source not only of vitamins and nutrients, but also of commensal bacteria. The microbiota associated to the human breast milk contributes to create the “initial” intestinal microbiota of infants, having also a pivotal role in modulating and influencing the newborns’ immune system. Indeed, the transient gut microbiota is responsible for the initial change from an intrauterine Th2 prevailing response to a Th1/Th2 balanced one. Bacteria located in both colostrum and mature milk can stimulate the anti-inflammatory response, by stimulating the production of specific cytokines, reducing the risk of developing a broad range of inflammatory diseases and preventing the expression of immune-mediated pathologies, such as asthma and atopic dermatitis. The aim of the present Mini Review is to elucidate the specific immunologic role of the human milk-associated microbiota and its impact on the newborn’s health and life, highlighting the importance to properly study the biological interactions in a bacterial population and between the microbiota and the host. The Auto Contractive Map, for instance, is a promising analytical methodology based on artificial neural network that can elucidate the specific role of bacteria contained in the breast milk in modulating the infants’ immunological response.
Human milk is essential for the initial development of newborns, as it provides all nutrients and vitamins, such as vitamin D, and represents a great source of commensal bacteria. Here we explore the microbiota network of colostrum and mature milk of Italian and Burundian mothers using the auto contractive map (AutoCM), a new methodology based on artificial neural network (ANN) architecture. We were able to demonstrate the microbiota of human milk to be a dynamic, and complex, ecosystem with different bacterial networks among different populations containing diverse microbial hubs and central nodes, which change during the transition from colostrum to mature milk. Furthermore, a greater abundance of anaerobic intestinal bacteria in mature milk compared with colostrum samples has been observed. The association of complex mathematic systems such as ANN and AutoCM adopted to metagenomics analysis represents an innovative approach to investigate in detail specific bacterial interactions in biological samples.
Bone defects caused by trauma or pathological events are major clinical and socioeconomic burdens. Thus, the efforts of regenerative medicine have been focused on the development of non-biodegradable materials resembling bone features. Consequently, the use of bioactive glass as a promising alternative to inert graft materials has been proposed. Bioactive glass is a synthetic silica-based material with excellent mechanical properties able to bond to the host bone tissue. Indeed, when immersed in physiological fluids, bioactive glass reacts, developing an apatite layer on the granule’s surface, playing a key role in the osteogenesis process. Moreover, the contact of bioactive glass with biological fluids results in the increase of osmotic pressure and pH due to the leaching of ions from granules’ surface, thus making the surrounding environment hostile to microbial growth. The bioactive glass antimicrobial activity is effective against a wide selection of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, either in planktonic or sessile forms. Furthermore, bioglass is able to reduce pathogens’ biofilm production. For the aforementioned reasons, the use of bioactive glass might be a promising solution for the reconstruction of bone defects, as well as for the treatment and eradication of bone infections, characterized by bone necrosis and destruction of the bone structure.
Background Psoriasis and atopic dermatitis (AD) are chronic inflammatory skin diseases, which negatively influence the quality of life. In the last years, several evidences highlighted the pivotal role of skin bacteria in worsening the symptomatology of AD and psoriasis. In the present study we evaluated the skin microbiota composition in accurately selected subjects affected by (AD) and psoriasis.Methods Three first cousins were chosen for the study according to strict selection of criteria. One subject was affected by moderate AD, one had psoriasis and the last one was included as healthy control. Two lesional skin samples and two non-lesional skin samples (for AD and psoriatic subjects) from an area of 2 cm2 behind the left ear were withdrawn by mean of a curette. For the healthy control, two skin samples from an area of 2 cm2 behind the left ear were withdrawn by mean of a curette. DNA was extracted and sequencing was completed on the Ion Torrent PGM platform. Culturing of Staphylococcus aureus from skin samples was also performed.ResultsThe psoriatic subject showed a decrease in Firmicutes abundance and an increase in Proteobacteria abundance. Moreover, an increase in Streptococcaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, Campylobacteraceae and Moraxellaceae has been observed in psoriatic subject, if compared with AD individual and control. Finally, AD individual showed a larger abundance of S. aureus than psoriatic and healthy subjects. Moreover, the microbiota composition of non-lesional skin samples belonging to AD and psoriatic individuals was very similar to the bacterial composition of skin sample belonging to the healthy control.ConclusionSignificant differences between the skin microbiota of psoriatic individual and healthy and AD subjects were observed.
We provide clear evidence that, in normal individuals, a high-volume polyethylene glycol bowel cleansing preparation has a long-lasting effect on the gut microbiota composition and homeostasis, in particular, with a decrease in the Lactobacillaceae abundance, a population of protective bacteria. Further studies are required to assess whether these changes have any metabolic, immunological, or clinical consequence.
BackgroundBreast milk is a rich nutrient with a temporally dynamic nature. In particular, numerous alterations in the nutritional, immunological and microbiological content occur during the transition from colostrum to mature milk. The objective of our study was to evaluate the potential impact of delivery mode on the microbiota of colostrum, at both the quantitative and qualitative levels (bacterial abundance and microbiota network).MethodsTwenty-nine Italian mothers (15 vaginal deliveries vs 14 Cesarean sections) were enrolled in the study. The microbiota of colostrum samples was analyzed by next generation sequencing (Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine). The colostrum microbiota network associated with Cesarean section and vaginal delivery was evaluated by means of the Auto Contractive Map (AutoCM), a mathematical methodology based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) architecture.ResultsNumerous differences between Cesarean section and vaginal delivery colostrum were observed. Vaginal delivery colostrum had a significant lower abundance of Pseudomonas spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Prevotella spp. when compared to Cesarean section colostrum samples. Furthermore, the mode of delivery had a strong influence on the microbiota network, as Cesarean section colostrum showed a higher number of bacterial hubs if compared to vaginal delivery, sharing only 5 hubs. Interestingly, the colostrum of mothers who had a Cesarean section was richer in environmental bacteria than mothers who underwent vaginal delivery. Finally, both Cesarean section and vaginal delivery colostrum contained a greater number of anaerobic bacteria genera.ConclusionsThe mode of delivery had a large impact on the microbiota composition of colostrum. Further studies are needed to better define the meaning of the differences we observed between Cesarean section and vaginal delivery colostrum microbiota.
Our results suggest that this specific mixture of probiotics (LS01 and BR03 strains) may induce beneficial effects for clinical and immunologic alterations in adult AD. This combination could be considered as adjuvant therapy for the treatment of AD in adult patients.
IntroductionNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), considered the leading cause of chronic liver disease in children, can often progress from non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). It is clear that obesity is one of the main risk factors involved in NAFLD pathogenesis, even if specific mechanisms have yet to be elucidated. We investigated the distribution of intestinal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in the stools of four groups of children: obese, obese with NAFL, obese with NASH, and healthy, age-matched controls (CTRLs).Material and methodsSixty-one obese, NAFL and NASH children and 54 CTRLs were enrolled in the study. Anthropometric and metabolic parameters were measured for all subjects. All children with suspected NASH underwent liver biopsy. Bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were analysed in children’s faecal samples, during a broader, 16S rRNA-based pyrosequencing analysis of the gut microbiome.ResultsThree Bifidobacterium spp. (Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium bifidum, and Bifidobacterium adolescentis) and five Lactobacillus spp. (L. zeae, L. vaginalis, L. brevis, L. ruminis, and L. mucosae) frequently recurred in metagenomic analyses. Lactobacillus spp. increased in NAFL, NASH, or obese children compared to CTRLs. Particularly, L. mucosae was significantly higher in obese (p = 0.02426), NAFLD (p = 0.01313) and NASH (p = 0.01079) than in CTRLs. In contrast, Bifidobacterium spp. were more abundant in CTRLs, suggesting a protective and beneficial role of these microorganisms against the aforementioned diseases.ConclusionsBifidobacteria seem to have a protective role against the development of NAFLD and obesity, highlighting their possible use in developing novel, targeted and effective probiotics.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2024 scite LLC. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers
Part of the Research Solutions Family.