Background: The PGWBI is a 22-item health-related Quality of Life (HRQoL) questionnaire developed in US which produces a self-perceived evaluation of psychological well-being expressed by a summary score. The PGWBI has been validated and used in many countries on large samples of the general population and on specific patient groups. Recently a study was carried out in Italy to reduce the number of items of the original questionnaire, yielding the creation of a shorter validated version of the questionnaire (PGWB-S). The purpose of the present paper is to describe the methods adopted and to report and discuss the relevance of results.
Latitude is an important determinant of C-IMT, which is not explained by between-country differences in established VRFs. Other unknown contributory mechanisms such as heritable, nutritional, or environmental factors may be important in the genesis of this geographical gradient.
Objectives: To investigate the causes of attrition reported by obese patients treated by medical centres. Design: Observational study. Setting: Obese patients enrolled in a long-term study involving 18 Italian medical centres. Participants: A total of 940 obese patients (727 female; mean age, 49 years; mean BMI, 38.6 kg/m 2 ). Measurements: Causes of attrition reported by dropouts during a structured telephone interview. Results: After a median observation period of 41 months (range, 25-50), 766 of 940 patients (81.5%) discontinued treatment. Sixty-two per cent of total dropout occurred in the first year of follow-up. Seventy-four per cent of dropouts reported a single primary reasons for treatment interruption. Two primary reasons were reported by 22.4% of patients, and three reasons by 3.4%. Practical difficulties, alone or in combination, were reported by more than half of dropouts (55%), and were the leading cause of attrition followed by perceived failure of treatment. Among practical difficulties, family problems or problems at work and logistics, coupled with health problems other than obesity, were the most frequent reasons of attrition, but also a perceived sense of abandonment or a bad interaction with therapists were frequently reported. Conclusion: Practical difficulties and psychological problems are the most important reasons of attrition reported by patients. A therapeutic alliance addressing these issues has a large potential to reduce treatment interruption and to improve outcome in obesity.
Wildlife has often presented and suggested the effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Animal studies have given us an important opportunity to understand the mechanisms of action of many chemicals on the endocrine system and on neurodevelopment and behaviour, and to evaluate the effects of doses, time and duration of exposure. Although results are sometimes conflicting because of confounding factors, epidemiological studies in humans suggest effects of EDCs on prenatal growth, thyroid function, glucose metabolism and obesity, puberty, fertility, and on carcinogenesis mainly through epigenetic mechanisms. This manuscript reviews the reports of a multidisciplinary national meeting on this topic.
The Italian 10-point score for the prediction of death was successfully validated in this independent population of patients with non-variceal gastrointestinal bleeding. The PNED score is accurate and superior to the Rockall score. Further external validation at the international level is needed.
The microbiota-gut-brain axis has been recently recognized as a key modulator of neuropsychiatric health. In this framework, probiotics (recently named "psychobiotics") may modulate brain activity and function, possibly improving the behavioral profiles of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). We evaluated the effects of probiotics on autism in a double-blind randomized, placebo-controlled trial of 85 preschoolers with ASD (mean age, 4.2 years; 84% boys). Participants were randomly assigned to probiotics (De Simone Formulation) (n=42) or placebo (n=43) for six months. Sixty-three (74%) children completed the trial. No differences between groups were detected on the primary outcome measure, the Total Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Calibrated Severity Score (ADOS-CSS). An exploratory secondary analysis on subgroups of children with or without Gastrointestinal Symptoms (GI group, n= 30; NGI group, n=55) revealed in the NGI group treated with probiotics a significant decline in ADOS scores as compared to that in the placebo group, with a mean reduction of 0.81 in Total ADOS CSS and of 1.14 in Social-Affect ADOS CSS over six months. In the GI group treated with probiotics we found greater improvements in some GI symptoms, adaptive functioning, and sensory profiles than in the GI group treated with placebo. These results suggest potentially positive effects of probiotics on core autism symptoms in a subset of ASD children independent of the specific intermediation of the probiotic effect on GI symptoms. Further studies are warranted to replicate and extend these promising findings on a wider population with subsets of ASD patients which share targets of intervention on the microbiota-gut-brain axis.
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