Objective: To analyze the frequency of unlicensed (UL) and offlabel (OL) prescriptions in neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital and to determine their association with patients' severity. Methods:Observational cohort study including drugs prescribed during hospitalization of neonates over a 6-week period between July and August 2011. The drugs were classified as UL and OL for dose, frequency, presentation, age group, or indication, according to an electronic list of drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Patients were followed until hospital discharge or 31 days of hospitalization, with daily records of the Neonatal Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System (NTISS). Results:We identified 318 prescription items for 61 patients (average of five items/patient); there were only 13 patients with appropriate use of medications (21%). A prevalence of 7.5% was identified for UL prescriptions and 27.7% for OL, and the most prevalent OL use was that related to age group -19.5%. Fifty-seven medications were computedone patient received 10 UL/OL drugs during hospitalization. The prevalence of OL uses was higher in preterm infants < 35 weeks and in those with higher severity scores (p = 0.00). Conclusions:The prevalence of neonates exposed to UL/OL drugs during hospitalization was high, especially for those with higher NTISS scores. Although there is general appreciation that neonates, especially preterm infants, have a high rate of drug use, an assessment including different cultures and countries is still needed to prioritize areas for future research in the pharmacotherapy of this vulnerable population.J Pediatr (Rio J). 2012;88(6):465-70: Drugs, drug labeling, injury severity score, neonatology. ResumoObjetivo: Avaliar a frequência da prescrição de medicamentos de uso não licenciado (UL) e off-label (OL) em recém-nascidos internados em unidade de tratamento intensivo neonatal de hospital de nível terciário e verificar a associação do seu uso com a gravidade dos pacientes.Métodos: Estudo observacional de coorte dos medicamentos prescritos no período de 6 semanas da internação de neonatos, entre julho e agosto de 2011. Os medicamentos foram classificados em UL e OL para dose, frequência, apresentação, faixa etária e indicação, de acordo com bulário eletrônico aprovado pela Food and Drug Administration. Os pacientes foram acompanhados até alta hospitalar ou 31 dias de internação, com registro diário do Neonatal Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System. Resultados:Foram identificados 318 itens de prescrição para 61 pacientes (média de cinco itens/paciente) e apenas 13 pacientes com uso de medicamentos adequados (21%). Identificaram-se prevalên-cias de 7,5% para prescrições UL e de 27,7% para OL. O uso OL mais prevalente foi para medicamentos não padronizados para faixa etária -19,5%. Computaram-se 57 medicações -um paciente recebeu 10 fármacos UL/OL na internação. A prevalência de usos OL foi maior em prematuros < 35 semanas e nos com escores de gravidade mais ele...
Through the lens of the 12 OECD Principles on Water Governance, this paper examines six water resources and water services frameworks in Europe, Asia-Pacific, Africa and South America to understand enhancing and constraining contextual factors. We use qualitative and quantitative methods to analyse each framework against four criteria: alignment; implementation; on-ground results; and policy impact. We identify four main target areas for improving water governance: policy coherence; financing; managing trade-offs; and ensuring integrity and transparency by all decisionmakers and stakeholders. We present suggestions to support practical implementation of the principles through better governmental action and stakeholder involvement.
Autologous transplantation continues to be the cornerstone of younger and fit multiple myeloma patients. It is known that frontline induction therapy before transplantation can influence post-transplant results. Therefore, best frontline treatment for transplant-eligible patients should be based on best available evidence to guide therapy. Furthermore, until now due to data scarcity, it was not possible to thoroughly compare lenalidomide to other regimens in this setting. We performed a systematic review and network (mixed treatment comparison) meta-analysis of 21 clinical trial publications, enrolling 6474 patients and comparing 11 different treatment frontline setting regimens regarding survival, response, and safety outcomes. OS analysis showed superiority of CRD (cyclophosphamide-lenalidomide-dexamethasone) over TD-based (thalidomide-dexamethasone, HR = 0.76,0.62-0.90), VAD-based (HR = 0.71,0.52-0.90), and Z-Dex (idarubicin-dexamethasone, HR = 0.37,0.17-0.76) regimens. Concerning PFS, VTD (bortezomib-thalidomide-dexametasone) showed superior results when compared with TD-based (HR = 0.66,0.51-0.84), VAD-based (HR = 0.61,0.46-0.82), Z-Dex (HR = 0.42,0.22-0.78), and high dose dexamethasone (Dex, HR = 0.62,0.41-0.90) regimens. Bortezomib/thalidomide regimens were not superior to lenalidomide, considering these outcomes. Also, concerning complete and overall response, VTD ranked first among other regimens, showing clear superiority over thalidomide-only containing protocols. Safety outcome evaluated infectious, cardiac, gastrointestinal, neurological, thrombotic, and hematological grade 3 to 4 adverse events. Risk of thrombotic events was higher with TAD (thalidomide-doxorubicin-dexamethasone), neurological with PAD (bortezomib-doxorubicin-dexamethasone), infectious with Dex, hematological with Z-Dex, gastrointestinal with VTD, and cardiac with PAD regimens. Our study endorses current recommendations on combined immunomodulatory drugs and proteasome inhibitors frontline regimens (in triplets) in transplant-eligible multiple myeloma patients, but also formally demonstrates the favorable performance of lenalidomide in overall and progression-free survival, when compared with bortezomib/thalidomide protocols.
The best classification of depressive disorders is still to be established. A melancholic subtype has a lengthy history, and recent research demonstrates its relevance. This study compares the prevalence of psychotic symptoms in nonmelancholic and melancholic depression and assesses whether there is a dimensional pattern in the severity of symptoms among the subtypes. Patients with unipolar depression were assessed for melancholic status, psychotic symptoms, and severity of depression. The diagnosis of melancholia was made by both Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR), criteria and CORE measure. The DSM criteria assigned a much higher percentage of patients as melancholics (67.4%) than did the CORE (24.9%). Prevalence of psychosis was distinctly higher in the melancholics. Symptoms severity was higher among the melancholics when compared with the nonmelancholics. The presence of psychotic symptoms was not associated with an increase in the intensity of depressive symptoms. Psychotic symptoms are more frequently associated with the melancholic subtype of depression. This suggests clinical contiguity between the melancholic and psychotic subtypes and the clinical relevance of identifying melancholia.
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