ABStRACt. Hypostomus sp 3-Córrego Salobrinha NUP 4247 and Hypostomus sp 2-Rio Perdido NUP 4249, collected in the Planalto da Bodoquena, Paraguay River basin, Brazil, were characterized cytogenetically. Hypostomus sp 3-Córrego Salobrinha showed two modal numbers. This polymorphism consists of the presence of two extrachromosomes. It was not possible to define the diploid number in four specimens, where cell lineages had 2n = 83 and 2n = 84 chromosomes in one individual, and 2n = 82, 2n = 83 and 2n = 84 chromosomes in the others. These results reveal the existence of a genetic mosaic due to the occurrence of one or two extrachromosomes in this species. Hypostomus sp 2-Rio Perdido NUP 4249 showed a 2n = 84, FN = 106 with size heteromorphism in one pair of chromosomes stained with AgNO 3 . In both species, C banding showed a pattern of heterochromatin distribution with a few small bands in the centromeric and pericentromeric regions coinciding with chromomycin A 3 staining. Until now, the major diploid number for the genus Hypostomus was 2n = 80, but the species studied here had chromosomes that in- creased this number and the variation for this genus. Our results are also the first cytogenetic data on Hypostomus from the Paraguay River basin.
Hoplias malabaricus, the common trahira, extended its range into the Iguaçu River sometime in the last decades. To determine levels of genetic differentiation in neighboring basins of this nominal taxon, as well as to unveil the source of the invading population, we analyzed patterns of similarity of RAPD-PCR genomic markers of samples from Paraná, Iguaçu and Tibagi Rivers. The high genetic diversity of samples from the Paraná and Tibagi Rivers suggested strong population structuring or even the occurrence of undescribed species. All alleles of the sample from the headwaters of Tibagi River were present in the sample from the Iguaçu River, which suggests that the former population or another population with similar genetic makeup, may be the source of the trahiras of the Iguaçu River.
Cytogenetic analyses were performed on fishes of the genus Hypostomus (Hypostomus ancistroides (Ihering, 1911), Hypostomus strigaticeps (Regan, 1908), Hypostomus regani (Ihering, 1905), and Hypostomus paulinus (Ihering, 1905)) from the seven tributaries of the Paranapanema River Basin (Brazil) by means of different staining techniques (C-, Ag-, CMA3- and DAPI-banding) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to detect 18S rDNA sites. All species showed different diploid numbers: 2n=68 (10m+26sm+32st-a) in Hypostomus ancistroides, 2n=72 (10m+16sm+46st-a) in Hypostomus strigaticeps, 2n=72 (10m+18sm+44st-a) in Hypostomus regani and 2n=76 (6m+16sm+54st-a) in Hypostomus paulinus. Ag-staining and FISH revealed various numbers and locations of NORs in the group. NORs were usually located terminally on the subtelocentric/acrocentric chromosomes: on the long arm in Hypostomus strigaticeps (2 to 4) and Hypostomus paulinus (2); and on the short arm in Hypostomus ancistroides (2 to 8) and Hypostomus regani (2 to 4). Conspicuous differences in heterochromatin distribution and composition were found among the species, terminally located in some st-a chromosomes in Hypostomus ancistroides, Hypostomus strigaticeps, and Hypostomus paulinus, and interstitially dispersed in most st-a chromosomes, in Hypostomus regani. The fluorochrome staining indicated that different classes of GC and/or AT-rich repetitive DNA evolved in this group. Our results indicate that chromosomal rearrangements and heterochromatin base-pair composition were significant events during the course of differentiation of this group. These features emerge as an excellent cytotaxonomic marker, providing a better understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms underlying the chromosomal diversity in Hypostomus species.
Hypostomus is the most speciose genus in the family Loricariidae, with approximately 120 species. These fish show a wide morphological and color variation, which hinders the identification of species, mainly of widely distributed representatives. The aim of this study was to contribute to the current knowledge on cytogenetic features of Hypostomus nigromaculatus. Three specimens of H. nigromaculatus, collected in two tributaries of rio Tibagi, Paraná, and in Cachoeira de Emas, rio MogiGuaçu, São Paulo, the latter being the type locality of H. nigromaculatus, were studied. Chromosomal preparations were submitted to Giemsa staining, silver nitrate impregnation, C-banding and CMA 3 and DAPI fluorochromes staining. All samples presented 2n = 76, but the rio Mogi-Guaçu sample differed from those from tributaries of rio Tibagi in relation to karyotype formulae, distribution and composition of heterochromatin, and NOR location. The silver nitrate staining revealed the presence of multiple Ag-NORs for all samples, but with differences on the location on chromosomes. CMA 3 staining reveled bright signals equivalent to NOR-bearing chromosomal segments; such sites were characterized by negative, i.e. unstained, marks after DAPI staining. The pattern of heterochromatin distribution was distinctive among samples from rio Mogi-Guaçu and tributaries of rio Tibagi. The differences observed between the sample from rio Mogi-Guaçu and the ones from tributaries of rio Tibagi allow us to suggest that these samples are presently isolated. Further analyses are necessary to ascertain whether such isolation refers to distinct populations or characterizes true different species.O gênero Hypostomus é um dos mais especiosos na família Loricariidae, tendo aproximadamente 120 espécies. Apresenta uma ampla diversidade quanto ao padrão de coloração e morfologia, o que dificulta a identificação de determinadas espécies, principalmente aquelas com ampla distribuição geográfica. Para isso os dados obtidos neste trabalho contribuem para os estudos citogenéticos de Hypostomus nigromaculatus. Foram analisados três exemplares de H. nigromaculatus de afluentes do rio Tibagi, Paraná e Cachoeira de Emas, rio Mogi-Guaçu, São Paulo, sendo esta última, a localidade tipo de H. nigromaculatus. Os cromossomos foram submetidos à coloração convencional (Giemsa), impregnação por nitrato de prata, bandamento-C e coloração com os fluorocromos CMA 3 e DAPI. Todos os exemplares apresentaram 2n = 76, no entanto com diferença quanto às fórmulas cariotípicas, distribuição e composição da heterocromatina. O nitrato de prata detectou RONs múltiplas para as amostras, porém com diferenças quanto à localização nos cromossomos. A coloração com fluorocromo CMA 3 foi correspondente aos cromossomos Ag-RONs, na coloração com DAPI foram observadas bandas negativas, ou seja, não coradas. O padrão de distribuição da heterocromatina foi diferente para as amostras do rio Mogi-Guaçu e dos tributários do rio Tibagi. As diferenças observadas entre as amostras de rio Mogi-Guaçu e afluent...
A cytogenetic analysis of thirteen specimens of Bryconamericus aff. Iheringii revealed a diploid number of 52 chromosomes and a karyotype of 8M+22SM+10ST+12A with a fundamental number (FN) of 92. The nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) were studied by means of AgNO 3 and CMA 3 staining as well as by FISH using an 18S rDNA probe. NORs were found to be located at the terminal position on the short arm of the submetacentric chromosome pair. C-banding showed strong telomeric and centromeric staining in the majority of the chromosomes, and a similar pattern was observed after treatment with AluI restriction enzyme
The karyotypes of three species of fish of the Cichlidae family from the Forqueta river and several locations in Guaíba lake/RS (Brazil) were analyzed. All species presented 2n=48, while Gymnogeophagus gymnogenys showed two karyotypic formulae: 4m+44st-a with FN=52 and 6m+42st-a with FN=54. Gymnogeophagus labiatus presented 4m+4sm+40st-a and FN=56 and Geophagus brasiliensis 4sm+44st-a and FN=52. Simple NORs were found in all species with the exception of a population of G. gymnogenys from Saco da Alemoa/Barra do Ribeiro. CMA ! staining revealed NOR sites, while DAPI staining was negative and heterochromatin was limited to pericentromeric regions and associated to NORs, except in G. labiatus. The data show a conserved pattern in Geophagus brasiliensis and karyotype variation in the species of Gymnogeophagus.
Eleven specimens of Iheringichthys labrosus, collected from the Tibagi River (Londrina, Paraná, Brazil) were analyzed cytogenetically, and were found to have a diploid chromosome number of 56, with a karyotype of 32Mϩ8SMϩ6STϩ10A and fundamental number (FN) of 102. In addition, supernumerary chromosomes or Bs varying from 0 to 3 were detected. C-banding revealed heterochromatin distributed mainly in telomeric regions, with a pair strongly stained on both telomeres. The B-chromosomes were totally heterochromatic. The restriction endonuclease (RE) AluI produced a band pattern almost similar to C-banding, and B-chromosomes showed no target sequences for RE.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2024 scite LLC. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers
Part of the Research Solutions Family.