We analyzed patterns of heterochromatic bands in the Neotropical stingless bee genus Melipona (Hymenoptera, Meliponini). Group I species (Melipona bicolor bicolor, Melipona quadrifasciata, Melipona asil6ae, Melipona marginata, Melipona subnitida) were characterized by low heterochromatic content. Group II species (Melipona capixaba, Melipona compressipes, Melipona crinita, Melipona seminigra fuscopilosa e Melipona scutellaris) had high heterochromatic content. All species had 2n =18 and n = 9. In species of Group I heterochromatin was pericentromeric and located on the short arm of acrocentric chromosomes, while in Group II species heterochromatin was distributed along most of the chromosome length. The most effective sequential staining was quinacrine mustard (QM)/distamycin (DA)/chromomycin A 3 (CMA 3 )/4-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). Heterochromatic and euchromatic bands varied extensively within Group I. In Group II species euchromatin was restricted to the chromosome tips and it was uniformly GC + . Patterns of restriction enzymes (EcoRI, DraI, HindIII) showed that heterochromatin was heterogeneous. In all species the first pair of homologues was of unequal size and showed heteromorphism of a GC + pericentromeric heterochromatin. In M. asil6ae (Group I) this pair bore NOR and in M. compressipes (Group II) it hybridized with a rDNA FISH probe. As for Group I species the second pair was AT + in M. subnitida and neutral for AT and GC in the remaining species of this group. Outgroup comparison indicates that high levels of heterochromatin represent a derived condition within Melipona. The pattern of karyotypic evolution sets Melipona in an isolated position within the Meliponini.
Hoplias malabaricus, a widely distributed neotropical freshwater fish, shows a conspicuous karyotypic diversification. An overview of this diversity is presented here comprising several Brazilian populations, and some others from Argentina, Uruguay and Surinam. Seven general cytotypes are clearly identified on the basis of their diploid number (2n = 39 to 2n = 42), chromosomal morphology and sex chromosome systems, which can be clustered into two major karyotypic groups. This clustering suggests that karyotype structure would be more informative than the diploid number regarding cytotype relationships in this fish group. While some cytotypes show a wide geographical distribution, some others appear to be endemic to specific hydrographic basins. Sympatric cytotypes can occur without detection of hybrid forms; this situation points to a lack of gene flow, a fact that is also reinforced by studies with genomic markers. The karyotypic data support the view that the nominal taxon H. malabaricus corresponds to a species complex comprising distinct evolutionary units, each with well-established chromosomal differences.
-The objectives of this work were to investigate the genetic structure of the Brazilian hair sheep breeds and to determine the origin of the Santa Inês breed. Molecular similarity was determined using Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA -Polymerase Chain Reaction markers in 238 individuals from five naturalized sheep breeds: Santa Inês (48 animals), Rabo Largo (48), Somali (48), Morada Nova (48) and Bergamasca (46), collected in Goiás, Sergipe, Bahia, and Ceará States as well as in the Federal District. Fifty-four loci were selected from 19 primers, after a pilot test using 140 primers. Qualitative analyses indicate diagnostic markers for all breeds. All breeds were significantly different from each other. Interbreed differences were explained by 14.92% of the total variation. Santa Inês clustered with Bergamasca (97% bootstrap) and with Rabo Largo, composing the third member of the group (81% bootstrap) while Morada Nova and Somali breeds clustered separately. Each breed should be considered as a separate management and conservation unit, and special care should be taken with Rabo Largo, Morada Nova and Somali breeds, represented by small herds in Brazil.
Background Callithrix marmosets are a relatively young primate radiation, whose phylogeny is not yet fully resolved. These primates are naturally para- and allopatric, but three species with highly invasive potential have been introduced into the southeastern Brazilian Atlantic Forest by the pet trade. There, these species hybridize with each other and endangered, native congeners. We aimed here to reconstruct a robust Callithrix phylogeny and divergence time estimates, and identify the biogeographic origins of autochthonous and allochthonous Callithrix mitogenome lineages. We sequenced 49 mitogenomes from four species (C. aurita, C. geoffroyi, C. jacchus, C. penicillata) and anthropogenic hybrids (C. aurita x Callithrix sp., C. penicillata x C. jacchus, Callithrix sp. x Callithrix sp., C. penicillata x C. geoffroyi) via Sanger and whole genome sequencing. We combined these data with previously published Callithrix mitogenomes to analyze five Callithrix species in total. Results We report the complete sequence and organization of the C. aurita mitogenome. Phylogenetic analyses showed that C. aurita was the first to diverge within Callithrix 3.54 million years ago (Ma), while C. jacchus and C. penicillata lineages diverged most recently 0.5 Ma as sister clades. MtDNA clades of C. aurita, C. geoffroyi, and C. penicillata show intraspecific geographic structure, but C. penicillata clades appear polyphyletic. Hybrids, which were identified by phenotype, possessed mainly C. penicillata or C. jacchus mtDNA haplotypes. The biogeographic origins of mtDNA haplotypes from hybrid and allochthonous Callithrix were broadly distributed across natural Callithrix ranges. Our phylogenetic results also evidence introgression of C. jacchus mtDNA into C. aurita. Conclusion Our robust Callithrix mitogenome phylogeny shows C. aurita lineages as basal and C. jacchus lineages among the most recent within Callithrix. We provide the first evidence that parental mtDNA lineages of anthropogenic hybrid and allochthonous marmosets are broadly distributed inside and outside of the Atlantic Forest. We also show evidence of cryptic hybridization between allochthonous Callithrix and autochthonous C. aurita. Our results encouragingly show that further development of genomic resources will allow to more clearly elucidate Callithrix evolutionary relationships and understand the dynamics of Callithrix anthropogenic introductions into the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.
Aim The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the Brazilian coastal populations of Hoplias malabaricus were subject to the same geomorphological and palaeohydrological factors that resulted in endemic fish regions, by characterizing the mitochondrial DNA, nuclear sequences and cytogenetic data of these populations. Location Seventeen coastal basins in north‐eastern, eastern and south‐eastern Brazil, plus the São Francisco Basin. Methods Forty‐two specimens were analysed. Mitochondrial ATP synthase 6 (ATPase‐6) and nuclear recombination activating gene 2 (RAG2) gene sequences were used for Bayesian inference and maximum parsimony analyses. Molecular models were selected using MrModeltest. Results Molecular analyses indicated four haplogroups (Northeastern, Eastern A, Eastern B and Southeastern) for ATPase‐6 and three clades for RAG2. All topologies were congruent with Hoplias malabaricus diploid numbers, with most regions of proposed endemism and coastal geomorphological units. Main conclusions Deep genetic divergence between the Northeastern and the other haplogroups was interpreted as evidence of the vicariant effect of the Abrolhos Formation, which effectively isolates 2n = 40 and 2n = 42 coastal populations. To the south, the Cabo Frio Magmatic Lineament also isolates the Eastern and Southeastern 2n = 42 populations. In the Northeastern haplogroup, stream piracy was probably involved in chronologically varied dispersal events between coastal and continental basins. All haplogroups also included haplotypes that dispersed in recent times. Results show an older vicariant pattern and recent dispersal events congruent with the occurrence of temporary connections along the coast caused by eustatic sea level variations and the occurrence of stream piracy involving either continental or coastal basins, and suggest these processes contributed to the current distribution patterns of Brazilian coastal freshwater fish.
Hoplias malabaricus, the common trahira, extended its range into the Iguaçu River sometime in the last decades. To determine levels of genetic differentiation in neighboring basins of this nominal taxon, as well as to unveil the source of the invading population, we analyzed patterns of similarity of RAPD-PCR genomic markers of samples from Paraná, Iguaçu and Tibagi Rivers. The high genetic diversity of samples from the Paraná and Tibagi Rivers suggested strong population structuring or even the occurrence of undescribed species. All alleles of the sample from the headwaters of Tibagi River were present in the sample from the Iguaçu River, which suggests that the former population or another population with similar genetic makeup, may be the source of the trahiras of the Iguaçu River.
The sedentary, predatory characin Hoplias malabaricus has one of the widest distributions of freshwater fishes in South America and is characterized by seven karyomorphs (A-G) that occur in sympatric and allopatric populations. Karyotypical patterns of variation in wild populations have been interpreted as evidence of multiple lineages within this nominal species, a possibility that may limit the validity of experimental data for particular karyomorphs. This study used the phylogeographic and genealogical concordance between cytogenetic (N = 49) and molecular (mitochondrial DNA) (N = 73) data on 17 samples, collected in 12 basins from south-eastern and north-eastern Brazil, to assess the systematic value of cytogenetic data. Cytogenetic patterns show a sex chromosome system in the 2n = 40F karyomorph. Molecular and cytogenetic data indicate a long, independent evolutionary history of karyomorphs and a coastal origin of continental populations in south-eastern Brazil. The lack of fit with molecular clock expectations of divergence between groups is likely to be due to strong demographic fluctuations during the evolution of this species complex. The results indicate that karyotypical identification provides a reliable baseline for placing experimental studies on Hoplias spp. in a phylogenetic context.
In the Rio Doce basin of southeastern Brazil, the freshwater fish Hoplias malabaricus (trahira) is a widespread predatory characin and one of the few resilient native fishes in a highly impacted lake system. In order to test for genetic differentiation in populations within this basin and for biogeographic relationships among populations of this species in other basins, a study was conducted using RAPD-PCR analysis of Rio Doce samples (N = 63) and phylogeographic analyses with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes, including the Rio Grande and Macacu river basins. In the Rio Doce basin, the patterns of genetic similarity of RAPD-PCR markers (individual fingerprinting and Nei's genetic distance) suggest the existence of two genetically different groups, one composed of the lacustrine populations Carioca and Dom Helvécio, and the other of riverine and the remaining lacustrine populations. The differences in the RAPD-PCR patterns may be explained by the existence of sub-basins within this lacustrine system. A maximum parsimony tree of cytochrome b fragment (383 base pairs) supports the view that trahiras of the Rio Doce share a complex biogeographic history with those of neighboring basins. The phylogeographic patterns may be explained by a common history of the watersheds of the Rio Doce, Paraíba do Sul, and Rio Grande basins, corroborating the hypothesis of a Plio-Pleistocene separation of these drainage systems, forming the Mantiqueira "divortium aquarium".
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers
Part of the Research Solutions Family.