P-glycoprotein (P-gp), the product of ABCB1 gene, is thought to play a role in the biliary excretion of a variety of drugs, but specific studies in dogs have not been performed. Because a number of endogenous (ABCB1 polymorphisms) and exogenous (pharmacological P-gp inhibition) factors can interfere with normal P-gp function, a better understanding of P-gp's role in biliary drug excretion is crucial in preventing adverse drug reactions and drug-drug interactions in dogs. The objectives of this study were to compare biliary excretion of technetium-99m-sestamibi ((99m)Tc-MIBI), a radio-labelled P-gp substrate, in wild-type dogs (ABCB1 wild/wild), and dogs with intrinsic and extrinsic deficiencies in P-gp function. Dogs with intrinsic P-gp deficiency included ABCB1 mut/mut dogs, and dogs with presumed intermediate P-gp phenotype (ABCB1 mut/wild). Dogs with extrinsic P-gp deficiency were considered to be ABCB1 wild/wild dogs treated with the P-gp inhibitor ketoconazole (5 mg/kg PO q12h x 9 doses). Results from this study indicate that ABCB1 mut/mut dogs have significantly decreased biliary excretion of (99m)Tc-MIBI compared with ABCB1 wild/wild dogs. Treatment with ketoconazole significantly decreased biliary excretion of (99m)Tc-MIBI in ABCB1 wild/wild dogs. P-gp appears to play an important role in the biliary excretion of (99m)Tc-MIBI in dogs. It is likely that concurrent administration of a P-gp inhibitor such as ketoconazole will decrease P-gp-mediated biliary excretion of other substrate drugs as well.
Background/Aims: Our objective is to assess donor complications in all right hepatic lobe living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) at our center. Methods: Of a total of 352 liver transplantations performed, 60 were right-lobe LDLT. Most donors (88.3%) were related to the recipients. Results: Mean hospital stay was 5.4 8 0.6 days. No complications occurred due to preoperative evaluation. Most donors received one or two units of autologous blood transfusion. Only 5 (8.3%) needed nonautologous blood transfusion. Most complications were minor and treated conservatively. Bile leaks from the cut surface of the liver occurred in 5 donors (8.3%). Two patients had potentially fatal complications: perforated duodenal ulcer and portal vein thrombosis (PVT). The donor with perforated ulcer developed septicemia and multiple organ failure. He was discharged from the hospital with hemiparesis due to cerebral ischemia. The patient with PVT remained asymptomatic and the portal vein was recanalized by the 3rd postoperative month. One donor died in the immediate postoperative period of cardiac arrest due to cardiac arrhythmia. Conclusion: Right hepatectomy for LDLT may be associated with significant morbidity, including death and it should be performed only by surgeons with great experience.
Salicornia ramosissima J. Woods is a halophyte plant recognized as a promising natural ingredient and will eventually be recognized a salt substitute (NaCl). However, its shelf-life and applicability in several food matrices requires the use of drying processes, which may have an impact on its nutritional and functional value. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of oven and freeze-drying processes on the nutritional composition, volatile profile, phytochemical content, and bioactivity of S. ramosissima using several analytical tools (LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS and SPME-GC-MS) and bioactivity assays (ORAC, HOSC, and ACE inhibition and antiproliferative effect on HT29 cells). Overall, results show that the drying process changes the chemical composition of the plant. When compared to freeze-drying, the oven-drying process had a lower impact on the nutritional composition but the phytochemical content and antioxidant capacity were significantly reduced. Despite this, oven-dried and freeze-dried samples demonstrated similar antiproliferative (17.56 mg/mL and 17.24 mg/mL, respectively) and antihypertensive (24.56 mg/mL and 18.96 mg/mL, respectively) activities. The volatile composition was also affected when comparing fresh and dried plants and between both drying processes: while for the freeze-dried sample, terpenes corresponded to 57% of the total peak area, a decrease to 17% was observed for the oven-dried sample. The oven-dried S. ramosissima was selected to formulate a ketchup and the product formulated with 2.2% (w/w) of the oven-dried plant showed a good consumer acceptance score. These findings support the use of dried S. ramosissima as a promising functional ingredient that can eventually replace the use of salt.
Most adult and pediatric liver transplantation candidates present several metabolic disturbances that lead to malnutrition. Because malnutrition may adversely affect morbidity and mortality of orthotopic liver transplantation, it is very important to carefully assess the nutritional status of the waiting list patients. Pretransplant nutritional therapy -- enteral or parenteral -- may positively influence liver metabolism, muscle function, and immune status. Nutrition therapy should continue in the short- and also in the long-term post-transplant periods. For malnourished patients, early post-transplant enteral or parenteral nutrition have been useful in improving nutritional status. Finally, the metabolic and nutritional care of the liver transplant donor must be considered to reduce allograft dysfunction indices.
Liver transplantation (LT) is the treatment of choice for patients with unresectable early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Post-LT HCC recurrence rates range from 8 to 20% and still impact on overall survival (OS). The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of HCC recurrence on post-LT survival and analyze prognostic factors among those patients with recurrence.
Patients and methods
We carried out a national, multicenter, retrospective cohort study in Brazil. Medical records of 1119 LT recipients with HCC were collected. Data from patients with post-LT HCC recurrence were analyzed and correlated with post-relapse survival.
OS of the 1119 patients included in the study was 63% over 5 years. Post-LT HCC recurrence occurred in 86 (8%) patients. The mean time to recurrence was 12 months. Sites of recurrence were extrahepatic in 55%, hepatic in 27%, and both hepatic and extrahepatic in 18%. Recurrence treatment was performed in 50 (64%) cases, mostly with sorafenib. Post-relapse survival rates were 34% at 1 year and 13% at 5 years. Univariable analysis identified α-fetoprotein more than 1000 ng/ml at relapse, recurrence treatment, extrahepatic location, and time to recurrence more than 2 years as prognostic factors. In multivariable analysis, recurrence treatment, extrahepatic location, and time to recurrence more than 2 years were independent predictors of better survival.
In a large Brazilian cohort of LT recipients with HCC, post-LT HCC recurrence occurred in 8% and impacted significantly on the OS. Patients with early recurrence presented a worse prognosis. However, treatment of recurrence improved outcomes, highlighting the importance of early diagnosis.
RESUMO OBJETIVOS. Determinar a opinião e o conhecimento, de uma amostra da população da cidade de Curitiba, sobre doação e transplante de órgãos.
MÉTODOS.A opinião e o conhecimento sobre doação e transplante de órgãos de mil pessoas, com idade superior a 18 anos, foram determinados através de um questionário de 20 perguntas. Os entrevistados avaliados tinham uma distribuição similar em idade, sexo e padrão socioeconômico, e escolaridade à população brasileira, determinada pelo IBGE. RESULTADOS. A maioria dos entrevistados (87,8%) era favorável à doação de órgãos. Não houve diferença na percentagem da população favorável à doação de órgãos com a relação a sexo, estado civil, religião e rendimentos. Os principais motivos para serem favoráveis à doação de órgãos foram para salvar vida, ajudar o próximo e doar vida. Os principais motivos para não serem favoráveis à doação foram falta de confiança na medicina ou no sistema de captação e distribuição de órgãos, por haver comércio de órgãos e temor de mutilação do corpo. A maioria dos entrevistados respondeu que os ricos tinham mais chances de serem transplantados do que os pobres, que existe venda de órgãos no Brasil e que existe possibilidade de erro no diagnóstico de morte encefálica estabelecido pelo médico. CONCLUSÃO. A maioria da população deste estudo é favorável à doação de órgãos e tem um bom conhecimento sobre doação e transplante de órgãos. A maioria demonstrou não confiar no sistema de distribuição de órgãos e no diagnóstico de morte encefálica.
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