ResumoDoze híbridos comerciais de milho foram intercruzados, conforme um dialelo completo. Esses genótipos e três testemunhas foram avaliados em látice triplo na região Centro-Sul do Paraná, nos municípios de Laranjeiras do Sul, Guarapuava e Cantagalo. Os dados referentes à produção de espigas despalhadas, altura de planta e altura de espiga foram submetidos à análise dialélica conjunta, segundo o método 4 de Griffing, em que foram avaliados apenas os F 1 . Foi verificado efeito significativo da capacidade geral de combinação (CGC), da capacidade específica de combinação (CEC) e da interação 'CGC x locais' para todos os caracteres. A interação 'CEC x locais' foi não significativa para as características avaliadas. Os híbridos P30F53 e AS1575 apresentaram estimativas positivas e elevadas da CGC para peso de espigas despalhadas e alta produtividade, mostrando-se promissores para geração de populações com bom potencial para obtenção de linhagens superiores no melhoramento intrapopulacional. Os híbridos P30F44 e 2B688 apresentam potencial para a geração de populações para melhoramento interpopulacional, pois apresentaram elevada média da produtividade de espigas despalhadas, estimativas positivas da CGC e da CEC, além de estimativas favoráveis para altura de espiga. Palavras-chave: Capacidade de combinação, dialelo, milho híbrido, Zea mays L AbstractTwelve commercial maize hybrids were intercrossed in a complete diallel. These genotypes and three checks were evaluated in lattice design with three replications in the South-Central region of Parana State, in Laranjeiras do Sul, Guarapuava and Cantagalo. Data of yield of husked ear, plant height and ear height were submitted to joint diallel analysis according to Griffings method 4, i.e. only F 1 were evaluated. Significant effect was found for general combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA) and interaction 'GCA x locations' for all characters. The interaction 'SCA x location' was not significant for both characters. Hybrids P30F53 and AS1575 showed positive and high estimates of GCA for yield of husked ear and high mean of yield, being interesting for the generation of populations with potential for intrapopulation breeding to obtain superior lines. The hybrids P30F44 and 2B688 are potentially indicated to generate populations for interpopulational breeding, since their high in yield of husked ears, positive GCA and SCA estimates, besides favorable estimates for ear height.
Acylsugars present in the accession 'LA716' of Lycopersicon pennellii play an important role in the resistance to Tuta absoluta. This paper investigates the possible association between the resistance to T. absoluta and the acylsugar contents in F2 and F2BC1 tomato plants derived from the interspecific crossing between L. esculentum 'TOM-584' and L. pennellii 'LA716'. From the F2 population, four high acylsugars and one low acylsugars plants were selected and tested for Tuta absoluta resistance along with parental lines TOM-584 and LA-716, and with the checks TOM-600 (high 2-tridecanone line with resistance to T. absoluta) and TOM-556 (low acylsugar line). The genotypes were tested under natural field infestation and were evaluated for overall plant damage, leaflet lesion type and percent of attacked leaflet. Four plants from F2BC1 [=(Lycopersicon esculentum 'TOM-584' × F 2 )] were selected for high acylsugars and two for low acylsugars, and tested in greenhouse cages infested with T. absoluta. These genotypes were evaluated with the parental lines and the checks for oviposition ten days after infestation, and for leaflet lesion type and overall plant damage at four different dates. The F2 genotypes BPX-370Bpl#25, BPX370Bpl#30 and BPX-370Bpl#79, the F2BC1 genotypes BPX-370B pl#30-380 and BPX-370B pl#30-271 and the wild accession LA716 had good levels of resistance to Tuta absoluta. The resistance level increased with longer exposition time to the acylsugars, both in the field and in the cage tests. Acylsugar contents seemed to be highly and negatively correlated with the traits related to the pinworm resistance. Key words: Lycopersicon pennellii, Lycopersicon esculentum, allelochemical, plant breeding ACILAÇÚCARES PRESENTES EM FOLÍOLOS DE TOMATEIROCONFEREM RESISTÊNCIA À TRAÇA DO TOMATEIRO, Tuta absoluta Meyr RESUMO: Os acilaçúcares presentes no acesso 'LA716' de Lycopersicon pennellii exercem um papel importante na resistência a Tuta absoluta. Foi avaliada a associação entre níveis de resistência à T. absoluta e o nível de acilaçúcares em plantas das gerações F2 e F2RC1 do cruzamento interespecífico L. esculentum 'TOM-584' × L. pennellii 'LA-716'. Na população F2 foram selecionados 4 genótipos com alto teor de acilaçúcares e um com baixo teor. Esses genótipos seleccionados, juntamente com as linhagens parentais e as testemunhas TOM-600 (linhagem com alto teor de 2-tridecanona e resistente a T. absoluta) e TOM-556 (linhagem com baixo teor de acilaçúcares) foram submetidos à infestação natural da traça no campo e avaliados quanto a danos na planta, lesões nos folíolos e porcentagem de folíolos atacados. Na população F2RC1 [=(Lycopersicon esculentum 'TOM-584' × F 2 )] foram selecionados 4 genótipos com altos teores de acilaçúcares nos folíolos e dois genótipos com baixos teores. Esses genótipos, juntamente com as linhagens parentais e as testemunhas, foram submetidos à infestação em gaiolas, em casa de vegetação. Avaliou-se a ovoposição da traça, os danos na planta e lesões1nos folíolos. Os genótipos F 2 ...
Palavras-chave: Solanum lycopersicum, produtividade, características físico-químicas. ABSTRACT Agronomic performance and physico-chemical quality in tomato hybrids grown without guidingThe evaluation of cultivars within the same soil and climatic conditions allows comparison of genotypes for its yield and quality potential, seeking to establish the most adapted for each region. This study aimed to evaluate the yield and fruit quality of tomato hybrids grown without guiding, for fresh consumption and processing. The field experiment was carried out in Pinhão, Paraná state, Brazil, in two years (2009/2010 and 2010/2011). The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replications. Ten tomato hybrids were used (Supera, Granadero, AP-529, AP-533, Kátia, Laura, Fascínio, Tinto, Red Spring and Vênus). We evaluated total and marketable yield, average fruit weight, fruit damage, presence of peduncle; and characteristics of quality: dry mass, fruit firmness, mesocarp thickness, soluble solids, titratable acidity, soluble solids/ titratable acidity ratio, pH, ascorbic acid, lycopene and reducing sugars. Granadero was the hybrid with the highest total yield (112.5 t ha -1 in 2009/2010 and 78.5 t ha -1 in 2010/2011) and marketable yield (88.7 t ha -1 in 2009/2010 and 69.0 t ha -1 in 2010/2011) in two years of experiment, as well as the highest dry matter and soluble solids and the highest mesocarp thickness. Tinto and Venus also stood out in total and marketable yield and the hybrid which had the highest average fruit weight was Venus (99.9 g). For the soluble solids/ titratable acidity ratio, Granadero, Venus, Supera, Tinto and Fascínio showed ratios above 10 in both years. Laura, Red Spring and Venus showed good values for ascorbic acid and lycopene. Overall, the best performing hybrid for traits and for both segments was Granadero, but this hybrid showed low genotypic stability. So Venus and Tinto, despite lower yields, could be recommended because they presented good quality and stability to the region.
RESUMOO cultivo protegido é uma alternativa para controlar variações climáticas em diferentes locais e épocas de plantio, entretanto, seus efeitos e interações com a cultura do morangueiro ainda são pouco conhecidos. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a influência de três sistemas de cultivo (túnel alto, túnel baixo e a campo) na produtividade, massa média de frutos e no teor de sólidos solúveis dos frutos das cultivares de morango Dover, Camarosa, Sweet Charlie e Oso Grande em Guarapuava-PR. Quanto à produtividade e massa média de frutos, a cultivar Camarosa foi a melhor nos cultivos em túnel, tanto alto quanto baixo, pelo seu excelente desempenho. Os frutos da cultivar Sweet Charlie apresentaram o maior teor de sólidos solúveis nos três ambientes de cultivo. A produtividade e a massa média dos frutos foram significativamente superiores nos cultivos em túneis, alto e baixo, quando comparados ao cultivo a campo. O ambiente que propiciou maior acúmulo de sólidos solúveis nos frutos foi o túnel alto, diferindo significativamente dos demais ambientes de cultivo.Palavras-chave: Fragaria x ananassa, túnel alto, túnel baixo. ABSTRACT Yield and soluble solids contents of fruits of strawberry cultivars in protected cultivationProtected cultivation is an alternative to control the climatic effects in different places and times of planting, however, its effects and interactions with the strawberry crop are little known. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of three cropping systems (high tunnel, low tunnel and field) on yield, mean fruit mass and the soluble solids contents of strawberry cultivars Dover, Camarosa, Sweet Charlie and Oso Grande in Guarapuava. Camarosa cultivar presents an excellent performance regarding yield and mean fruit mass in high and low tunnel cultivation; hence, these cropping system can be indicated. Fruits of Sweet Charlie cultivar had the highest content of soluble solids in all the cultivation environments. Yield and mean fruit mass obtained from high and low tunnels were significantly higher than in the field. The environment high tunnel allowed greater accumulation of soluble solids, differing significantly from other evaluated environments.
Orange is highly nutritious and a source of phytochemical compounds. However, its by-products are usually discarded. In this study, we evaluated the effect of orange peel (OP) addition in orange jam on sensory, physicochemical, and nutritional characteristics. Four jam formulations were elaborated with different OP levels: OP0 (standard), OP4, OP8, and OP12 (Orange Peel 0, 4, 8 and 12%, respectively). All samples were evaluated for sensory acceptability, and physicochemical and nutritional composition. The addition of 12% orange peel in jam reduced (p < 0.05) the acceptability for all evaluated attributes, as well as overall acceptance and purchase intention. However, OP utilization increased (p < 0.05) the levels of water activity, soluble solids, titratable acidity, and sugars. Soluble solids/titratable acidity ratio, luminosity (L*), and yellow content (b*) decreased in all added OP jams, while red content (a*) increased. No change in the pH and moisture values of the product were observed after OP addition. Ash, protein, lipid, dietary fiber, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant capacity values increased after OP addition, while carbohydrate and energy content decreased. A texture test showed that adhesiveness decreased, while gumminess, chewiness, and elasticity increased after OP addition. We concluded that the addition of up to 8% orange peel in jam maintains sensory acceptability similar to that of the standard product. OP addition is a viable alternative to improve some of the product’s physicochemical and nutritional characteristics.
Resumo -O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar os teores de zingibereno em populações segregantes (F 2 ) do segundo retrocruzamento para Lycopersicon esculentum a partir da espécie selvagem L. hirsutum var. hirsutum, e verificar a relação entre estes teores e a densidade de tricomas glandulares e a repelência a Tetranychus evansi. Na quantificação do zingibereno, utilizou-se um método espectrofotométrico; os tricomas foram contados a partir de cortes paradérmicos e a resistência a ácaros foi avaliada por um bioteste de repelência. A seleção indireta quanto ao teor de zingibereno promoveu aumentos correlacionados no número de tricomas glandulares e na repelência ao ácaro, e o zingibereno nos tricomas glandulares participou efetivamente na resistência aos ácaros. A densidade de tricomas glandulares influencia de maneira determinante os teores de zingibereno, sendo que o tricoma tipo VI destacou-se por apresentar alta correlação com este aleloquímico. Os teores de zingibereno e a sua relação com tricomas glandulares e com a resistência a artrópodos-pragas se mantiveram ao longo dos retrocruzamentos, evidenciando a possibilidade de obtenção de plantas resistentes via seleção indireta para alto teor de zingibereno nos folíolos.Termos para indexação: Lycopersicon hirsutum, Lycopersicon esculentum, sesquiterpeno, ácaros. Relationship between zingiberene, foliar trichomes and repellence of tomato plant to Tetranychus evansiAbstract -The objective of this work was to quantify zingiberene contents in a segregating population (F 2 ) of the second backcross generation to Lycopersicon esculentum after the initial cross with the wild species L. hirsutum var. hirsutum, and to analyse the relationship between zingiberene and both glandular trichome density on tomato leaves and levels of repellence to spider mites Tetranychus evansi. A spectrophotometric assay was used to quantify zingiberene in leaf disks. Trichome counting was made in paradermic preparations of leaf and mite repellence was accessed by a quick thumbtack assay. Indirect selection for high zingiberene contents increased both glandular trichome density and the level of mite repellence. Zingiberene in glandular trichomes therefore mediates mite repellence in the tomato population. Glandular trichome densities, especially that of type VI trichomes, were highly and positively correlated with zingiberene contents. High zingiberene levels and their relationship with both glandular trichome densities and resistance (repellence) to spider mites remained significant after two backcross generations, indicating an indirect selection for high zingiberene as an effective way of selecting mite resistant tomato genotypes.
Most strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duchesne) cultivars used in Brazil are developed in other countries, it became clear the need to start the strawberry breeding program in the country. To start a breeding program is necessary the genetic characterization of the germplasm available. Molecular markers are important tools that can be used for this purpose. The objectives of the present study were to assess the genetic similarity among 11 strawberry cultivars using RAPD and ISSR molecular markers and to indicate the possible promising crosses. The DNA of the eleven strawberry cultivars was extracted and amplified by PCR with RAPD and ISSR primers. The DNA fragments were separated in agarose gel for the RAPD markers and in polyacrylamide gel for the ISSR markers. The genetic similarity matrix was estimated by the Jaccard coefficient. Based on this matrix, the cultivars were grouped using the UPGMA method. The dendogram generated by the RAPD markers distributed the cultivars in three groups while the ISSR markers generated two groups. There was no direct relationship between the marker groups when the two types of markers were compared. The grouping proposed by the ISSR markers was more coherent with the origin and the genealogy of the cultivars than that proposed by the RAPD markers, and it can be considered the most efficient method for the study of genetic divergence in strawberry. The most promising crosses, based on the genetic divergence estimated from the RAPD and ISSR molecular data were between the Tudla and Ventana and the Oso Grande and Ventana cultivars, respectively.
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