We develop a common theoretical framework for combining classifiers which use distinct pattern representations and show that many existing schemes can be considered as special cases of compound classification where all the pattern representations are used jointly to make a decision. An experimental comparison of various classifier combination schemes demonstrates that the combination rule developed under the most restrictive assumptions-the sum rule-outperforms other classifier combinations schemes. A sensitivity analysis of the various schemes to estimation errors is carried out to show that this finding can be justified theoretically.
The Visual Object Tracking challenge VOT2018 is the sixth annual tracker benchmarking activity organized by the VOT initiative. Results of over eighty trackers are presented; many are state-of-the-art trackers published at major computer vision conferences or in journals in the recent years. The evaluation included the standard VOT and other popular methodologies for short-term tracking analysis and a "real-time" experiment simulating a situation where a tracker processes images as if provided by a continuously running sensor. A long-term tracking subchallenge has been introduced to the set of standard VOT sub-challenges. The new subchallenge focuses on long-term tracking properties, namely coping with target disappearance and reappearance. A new dataset has been compiled and a performance evaluation methodology that focuses on long-term tracking capabilities has been adopted. The VOT toolkit has been updated to support both standard short-term and the new longterm tracking subchallenges. Performance of the tested trackers typically by far exceeds standard baselines. The source code for most of the trackers is publicly available from the VOT page. The dataset, the evaluation kit and the results are publicly available at the challenge website 60 .
We address the problem of comparing sets of images for object recognition, where the sets may represent variations in an object's appearance due to changing camera pose and lighting conditions. Canonical Correlations (also known as principal or canonical angles), which can be thought of as the angles between two d-dimensional subspaces, have recently attracted attention for image set matching. Canonical correlations offer many benefits in accuracy, efficiency, and robustness compared to the two main classical methods: parametric distribution-based and nonparametric sample-based matching of sets. Here, this is first demonstrated experimentally for reasonably sized data sets using existing methods exploiting canonical correlations. Motivated by their proven effectiveness, a novel discriminative learning method over sets is proposed for set classification. Specifically, inspired by classical Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), we develop a linear discriminant function that maximizes the canonical correlations of within-class sets and minimizes the canonical correlations of between-class sets. Image sets transformed by the discriminant function are then compared by the canonical correlations. Classical orthogonal subspace method (OSM) is also investigated for the similar purpose and compared with the proposed method. The proposed method is evaluated on various object recognition problems using face image sets with arbitrary motion captured under different illuminations and image sets of 500 general objects taken at different views. The method is also applied to object category recognition using ETH-80 database. The proposed method is shown to outperform the state-of-the-art methods in terms of accuracy and efficiency.
The Visual Object Tracking challenge VOT2019 is the seventh annual tracker benchmarking activity organized by the VOT initiative. Results of 81 trackers are presented; many are state-of-the-art trackers published at major computer vision conferences or in journals in the recent years. The evaluation included the standard VOT and other popular methodologies for short-term tracking analysis as well as the standard VOT methodology for long-term tracking analysis. The VOT2019 challenge was composed of five challenges focusing on different tracking domains: (i) VOT-ST2019 challenge focused on short-term tracking in RGB, (ii) VOT-RT2019 challenge focused on "real-time" shortterm tracking in RGB, (iii) VOT-LT2019 focused on longterm tracking namely coping with target disappearance and reappearance. Two new challenges have been introduced: (iv) VOT-RGBT2019 challenge focused on short-term tracking in RGB and thermal imagery and (v) VOT-RGBD2019 challenge focused on long-term tracking in RGB and depth imagery. The VOT-ST2019, VOT-RT2019 and VOT-LT2019 datasets were refreshed while new datasets were introduced for VOT-RGBT2019 and VOT-RGBD2019. The VOT toolkit has been updated to support both standard shortterm, long-term tracking and tracking with multi-channel imagery. Performance of the tested trackers typically by far exceeds standard baselines. The source code for most of the trackers is publicly available from the VOT page. The dataset, the evaluation kit and the results are publicly available at the challenge website 1 .
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