BackgroundThe success of genomic selection depends mainly on the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between markers and quantitative trait loci (QTL), the number of animals in the training set (TS) and the heritability (h2) of the trait. The extent of LD depends on the genetic structure of the population and the density of markers. The aim of this study was to calculate accuracy of direct genomic estimated breeding values (DGEBV) using best linear unbiased genomic prediction (GBLUP) for different marker densities, heritabilities and sizes of the TS in simulated populations that mimicked previously reported extent and pattern of LD in beef cattle.ResultsThe accuracy of DGEBV increased significantly (p < 0.05) with the increase in the number of bulls in the TS (480, 960 or 1920), trait h2 (0.10, 0.25 or 0.40) and marker densities (40 k or 800 k). Increasing the number of animals in the TS by 4-fold and using their phenotypes to estimate marker effects was not sufficient to maintain or increase the accuracy of DGEBV obtained using estimated breeding values (EBVs) when the trait h2 was lower than 0.40 for both marker densities. Comparing to expected accuracies of parent average (PA), the gains by using DGEBV would be of 27%, 13% and 10% for trait h2 equal to 0.10, 0.25 and 0.40, respectively, considering the scenario with 40 k markers and 1920 bulls in TS.ConclusionsAs reported in dairy cattle, the size of the TS and the extent of LD have major impact on the accuracy of DGEBV. Based on the findings of this simulation study, large TS, as well as dense marker panels, aiming to increase the level of LD between markers and QTL, will likely be needed in beef cattle for successful implementation of genomic selection.
Movement of livestock production within a country or region has implications for genetics, adaptation, well-being, nutrition, and production logistics, particularly in continental-sized countries, such as Brazil. Cattle production in Brazil from 1977 to 2011 was spatialized, and the annual midpoint of production was calculated. Changes in the relative production and acceleration of production were calculated and spatialized using ARCGIS®. Cluster and canonical discriminant analyses were performed to further highlight differences between regions in terms of cattle production. The mean production point has moved from the Center of Minas Gerais State (in the southeast region) to the North of Goiás State (in the Midwest region). This reflects changes in environmental factors, such as pasture type, temperature and humidity. Acceleration in production in the northern region of Brazil has remained strong over the years. More recently, “traditional” cattle-rearing regions, such as the south and southeast, showed a reduction in growth rates as well as a reduction in herd size or internal migration over the period studied. These maps showed that this movement tends to be gradual, with few regions showing high acceleration or deceleration rates.
Seventy-two pigs of three genetic groups (Brazilian indigenous breed Piau, Commercial line and Crossbred) of both sexes were slaughtered at four live weights (30, 60, 90 and 120 kg). Intramuscular fat (IMF) content in Longissimus dorsi muscle of each animal was extracted and correlated with candidate gene mRNA expression (ATN1, EEF1A2, FABP3, LDLR, MGP, OBSCN, PDHB, TRDN and RYR1). Within slaughter weight of 120 kg, Piau and Crossbred pigs showed higher IMF content (p < 0.05) than commercial animals, with 2.48, 2.08 and 1.00% respectively. Barrows presented higher values of IMF (p < 0.05) than gilts (1.54 and 1.30% respectively). Gene expression of EEF1A2, FABP3, LDLR, OBSCN, PDHB, TRDN and RYR1 were correlated with IMF (p < 0.05) using the whole dataset. For Piau data only, expression of FABP3, LDLR, MGP, OBSCN, PDHB, TRDN and RYR1 showed correlation with IMF (p < 0.05). Genes that have important roles in lipid transportation inside the cell (FABP3) and tissues (LDLR) showed correlation with IMF of, respectively, 0.68 and 0.63 using the whole data set, and 0.90 and 0.91 using data from Piau animals. The highly positive correlation of the LDLR and FAPB3 expression with IMF content may confirm that these genes are important for fat deposition in the porcine L. dorsi muscle.
-Data from 26,558 Holstein cows in 802 herds were used to estimate genetic, residual and phenotypic parameters for 22 type traits. The model included the fixed effects of herd-year, period of classification, classifier, stage of lactation and age of cows at calving (covariate) and random genetic and residual effects. Heritability for type traits ranged from 0.10 to 0.39. The genetic variability in these traits suggested the possibility for moderate genetic gains through selection. The phenotypic correlations were moderated, mainly in the section conformation. Genetic correlations between type traits ranged from -0.44 to 0.85. High genetic correlations indicated that breeding programs could be successful without including all type traits. The selection for the final score at the expense of other traits must be performed with restraint, because in the long term, this may promote undesirable changes in some type traits.
-The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for milk, fat and protein yields of Holstein cows using 56,508; 35,091 and 8,326 test-day milk records from 7,015, 4,476 and 1,114 cows, calves of 359, 246 and 90 bulls, respectively. The additive genetic and permanent environmental effects were estimated using REML. Random regression models with Legendre polynomials from order 3 to 6 were used. Residual variances were considered homogeneous over the lactation period. The estimates of variance components showed similar trends, with an increase of the polynomial order for each trait. The heritability estimates ranged from 0.14 to 0.31; 0.03 to 0.21 and 0.09 to 0.33 for milk, fat and protein yield, respectively. Genetic correlations among milk, fat and protein yields ranged from 0.02 to 1.00; 0.34 to 1.00 and 0.42 to 1.00, respectively. Models with higher order Legendre polynomials are the best suited to adjust test-day data for the three production traits studied. herdabilidade variaram, respectivamente, de 0,14 a 0,31; 0,03 a 0,21; e 0,09 a 0,33 para as produções de leite, de gordura e de proteína. As correlações genéticas entre produções de leite, gordura e proteína do leite variaram de 0,02 a 1,00; 0,34 a 1,00 e 0,42 a 1,00, respectivamente. Os modelos com polinômio de Legendre de maior ordem são os mais adequados para ajuste da produção no dia do controle das três características produtivas.Palavras-chave: dia do controle, herdabilidade, produção de gordura, produção de leite, produção de proteína Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia
Longevity is a desirable trait in the dairy industry because of its relationship to profitability. The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for longevity measurements related to productive life, or life in the herd, and linear type traits of Brazilian Holstein cows born between the years 1990 and 2008. The (co) variance components were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method. The heritability for measurements of longevity and linear type traits ranged from 0.05 to 0.07 and 0.08 to 0.39, respectively. The genetic correlations between measurements of longevity and linear type traits ranged from -0.39 to 0.31. Direct selection for longevity does not necessarily lead to long-lived cows, due to low heritability. Indirect genetic selection for udder depth, bone quality, udder height, rear teat placement and conformation traits showed the highest genetic correlations with measurements of time between birth and last milk record and time from first calving to last milk record.
-Records of test-day milk yields of the first three lactations of 25,500 Holstein cows were used to estimate genetic parameters for milk yield by using two alternatives of definition of fixed regression of the random regression models (RRM). Legendre polynomials of fourth and fifth orders were used to model regression of fixed curve (defined based on averages of the populations or multiple sub-populations formed by grouping animals which calved at the same age and in the same season of the year) or random lactation curves (additive genetic and permanent enviroment). Akaike information criterion (AIC) and Bayesian information criterion (BIC) indicated that the models which used multiple regression of fixed lactation curves of lactation multiple regression model with fixed lactation curves had the best fit for the first lactation test-day milk yields and the models which used a single regression of fixed curve had the best fit for the second and third lactations. Heritability for milk yield during lactation estimates did not vary among models but ranged from 0.22 to 0.34, from 0.11 to 0.21, and from 0.10 to 0.20, respectively, in the first three lactations. Similarly to heridability estimates of genetic correlations did not vary among models. The use of single or multiple fixed regressions for fixed lactation curves by RRM does not influence the estimates of genetic parameters for test-day milk yield across lactations.Key Words: test-day milk yield, genetic correlation, heritability, Legendre polynomial, selection Parâmetros genéticos para produção de leite usando modelos de regressão aleatória com diferentes alternativas de modelagem da regressão fixa RESUMO -Os registros de produção de leite no dia do controle das três primeiras lactações de 25,5 mil vacas da raça Holandesa foram utilizados para estimar parâmetros genéticos para produção de leite usando duas alternativas de definição da regressão fixa dos modelos de regressão aleatória (MRA). Os polinômios de Legendre de ordens 4 e 5 foram usados para modelar as regressões das curvas fixas (definidas com base nas médias das produções de leite no dia do controle da população ou de múltiplas sub-populações formadas pelo agrupamento de animais que pariram na mesma idade e estação do ano) e aleatórias (genética aditiva e de ambiente permanente) de lactação. Os critérios de informação de Akaike (AIC) e Bayesiano (BIC) indicaram os modelos que consideraram múltiplas regressões das curvas fixas de lactação como os que melhor se ajustaram aos registros de produção de leite da primeira lactação e os modelos que utilizaram uma única regressão da curva fixa, como os melhores para ajuste das segunda e terceira lactações. As herdabilidades para produção de leite ao longo da lactação não variaram entre modelos, entretanto variaram de 0,22 a 0,34; 0,11 a 0,21 e 0,10 a 0,20, respectivamente, para as três primeiras lactações. Semelhantemente às estimativas de herdabilidade os valores das estimativas de correlações genéticas não variaram entre modelos. O uso de uma ou de...
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