Therapeutic effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT) are limited by cancer hypoxia because the PDT process is dependent on O concentration. Herein, we design biocompatible manganese ferrite nanoparticle-anchored mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MFMSNs) to overcome hypoxia, consequently enhancing the therapeutic efficiency of PDT. By exploiting the continuous O-evolving property of MnFeO nanoparticles through the Fenton reaction, MFMSNs relieve hypoxic condition using a small amount of nanoparticles and improve therapeutic outcomes of PDT for tumors in vivo. In addition, MFMSNs exhibit T contrast effect in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), allowing in vivo tracking of MFMSNs. These findings demonstrate great potential of MFMSNs for theranostic agents in cancer therapy.
Despite encouraging results from preliminary studies of anticancer therapies, the lack of tumor specificity remains an important issue in the modern pharmaceutical industry. New findings indicate that biotin or biotin-conjugates could be favorably assimilated by tumor cells that over-express biotin-selective transporters. Furthermore, biotin can form stable complexes with avidin and its bacterial counterpart streptavidin. The strong bridging between avidin and biotin moieties on other molecules is a proven adaptable tool with broad biological applications. Under these circumstances, a biotin moiety is certainly an attractive choice for live-cell imaging, biosensing, and target delivery.
Ginseng is widely used for its promising healing and restorative properties as well as for its possible tonic effect in traditional medicine. Nowadays, many studies focus on purified individual ginsenoside, an important constituent in ginseng, and study its specific mechanism of action instead of whole-plant extracts on cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Of the various ginsenosides, purified ginsenosides such as Rb1, Rg1, Rg3, Rh1, Re, and Rd are the most frequently studied. Although there are many reports on the molecular mechanisms and medical applications of ginsenosides in the treatment of CVDs, many concerns exist in their application. This review discusses current works on the countless pharmacological functions and the potential benefits of ginseng in the area of CVDs. Results: Both in vitro and in vivo results indicate that ginseng has potentially positive effects on heart disease through its various properties including antioxidation, reduced platelet adhesion, vasomotor regulation, improving lipid profiles, and influencing various ion channels. To date, approximately 40 ginsenosides have been identified, and each has a different mechanism of action owing to the differences in chemical structure. This review aims to present comprehensive information on the traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of ginseng, especially in the control of hypertension and cardiovascular function. In addition, the review also provides an insight into the opportunities for future research and development on the biological activities of ginseng.
Poor O 2 supply to the infiltrated immune cells in the joint synovium of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) up-regulates hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α) expression and induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, both of which exacerbate synovial inflammation. Synovial inflammation in RA can be resolved by eliminating pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages and inducing anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. Because hypoxia and ROS in the RA synovium play a crucial role in the induction of M1 macrophages and reduction of M2 macrophages, herein, we develop manganese ferrite and ceria nanoparticle-anchored mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MFC-MSNs) that can synergistically scavenge ROS and produce O 2 for reducing M1 macrophage levels and inducing M2 macrophages for RA treatment. MFC-MSNs exhibit a synergistic effect on O 2 generation and ROS scavenging that is attributed to the complementary reaction of ceria nanoparticles (NPs) that can scavenge intermediate hydroxyl radicals generated by manganese ferrite NPs in the process of O 2 generation during the Fenton reaction, leading to the efficient polarization of M1 to M2 macrophages both in vitro and in vivo. Intra-articular administration of MFC-MSNs to rat RA models alleviated hypoxia, inflammation, and pathological features in the joint. Furthermore, MSNs were used as a drug-delivery vehicle, releasing the anti-rheumatic drug methotrexate in a sustained manner to augment the therapeutic effect of MFC-MSNs. This study highlights the therapeutic potential of MFC-MSNs that simultaneously generate O 2 and scavenge ROS, subsequently driving inflammatory macrophages to the antiinflammatory subtype for RA treatment.
Implantable endovascular devices such as bare metal, drug eluting, and bioresorbable stents have transformed interventional care by providing continuous structural and mechanical support to many peripheral, neural, and coronary arteries affected by blockage. Although effective in achieving immediate restoration of blood flow, the long-term re-endothelialization and inflammation induced by mechanical stents are difficult to diagnose or treat. Here we present nanomaterial designs and integration strategies for the bioresorbable electronic stent with drug-infused functionalized nanoparticles to enable flow sensing, temperature monitoring, data storage, wireless power/data transmission, inflammation suppression, localized drug delivery, and hyperthermia therapy. In vivo and ex vivo animal experiments as well as in vitro cell studies demonstrate the previously unrecognized potential for bioresorbable electronic implants coupled with bioinert therapeutic nanoparticles in the endovascular system.
A major challenge in photodynamic cancer therapy (PDT) is avoiding PDT-induced hypoxia, which can lead to cancer recurrence and progression through activation of various angiogenic factors and significantly reduce treatment outcomes. Reported here is an acetazolamide (AZ)-conjugated BODIPY photosensitizer (AZ-BPS) designed to mitigate the effects of PDT-based hypoxia by combining the benefits of anti-angiogenesis therapy with PDT. AZ-BPS showed specific affinity to aggressive cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 cells) that overexpress carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX). It displayed enhanced photocytotoxicity compared to a reference compound, BPS, which is an analogous PDT agent that lacks an acetazolamide unit. AZ-BPS also displayed an enhanced in vivo efficacy in a xenograft mouse tumor regrowth model relative to BPS, an effect attributed to inhibition of tumor angiogenesis by both PDT-induced ROS generation and CAIX knockdown. AZ-BPS was evaluated successfully in clinical samples collected from breast cancer patients. We thus believe that the combined approach described here represents an attractive therapeutic approach to targeting CAIX-overexpressing tumors.
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