IMPORTANCEBullying is a prevalent and modifiable risk factor for mental health disorders. Although previous studies have supported the effectiveness of anti-bullying programs; their population impact and the association of specific moderators with outcomes are still unclear.OBJECTIVE To assess the effectiveness of school anti-bullying interventions, their population impact, and the association between moderator variables and outcomes.DATA SOURCES A search of Ovid MEDLINE, ERIC, and PsycInfo databases was conducted using 3 sets of search terms to identify randomized clinical trials (RCTs) assessing anti-bullying interventions published from database inception through February 2020. A manual search of reference lists of articles included in previous systematic reviews and meta-analyses was also performed. STUDY SELECTIONThe initial literature search yielded 34 798 studies. Included in the study were articles that (1) assessed bullying at school; (2) assessed the effectiveness of an anti-bullying program; (3) had an RCT design; (4) reported results; and (5) were published in English. Of 16 707 studies identified, 371 met the criteria for review of full-text articles; 77 RCTs were identified that reported data allowing calculation of effect sizes (ESs). Of these, 69 independent trials were included in the final meta-analysis database.DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS Random-effects and meta-regression models were used to derive Cohen d values with pooled 95% CIs as estimates of ES and to test associations between moderator variables and ES estimates. Population impact number (PIN), defined as the number of children in the total population for whom 1 event may be prevented by an intervention, was used as an estimate of the population impact of universal interventions targeting all students, regardless of individual risk. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURESThe main outcomes are the effectiveness (measured by ES) and the population impact (measured by the PIN) of anti-bullying interventions on the following 8 variable categories: overall bullying, bullying perpetration, bullying exposure, cyberbullying, attitudes that discourage bullying, attitudes that encourage bullying, mental health problems (eg, anxiety and depression), and school climate as well as the assessment of potential assocations between trial or intervention characteristics and outcomes. RESULTSThis study included 77 samples from 69 RCTs (111 659 participants [56 511 in the intervention group and 55 148 in the control group]). The weighted mean (range) age of participants in the intervention group was 11.1 (4-17) years and 10.8 (4-17) years in the control group. The weighted mean (range) proportion of female participants in the intervention group was 49.9% (0%-100%) and 50.5% (0%-100%) in the control group. Anti-bullying interventions were efficacious in reducing bullying (ES, −0.150; 95% CI, −0.191 to −0.109) and improving mental health problems (ES, −0.205; 95% CI, −0.277 to −0.133) at study end point, with PINs for universal interventions that target the total stud...
Peer relationships can be shaped as influential factors in the prevalence of bullying episodes. This research aims to analyze the effect of school bullying on the levels of depression of the victims and to what extent it is affected by social support and status in the group and by the profile of victimization. Several hierarchical linear regression analyses were calculated, in a sample of 1063 students aged 10 to 14 (47.8% of girls, M = 11.59 years, SD = 1.21 years), from 10 school of the Region of Madrid. The degree of influence of the studied variables was observed: lack of social support, peer rejection, withdrawal and impulsivity behaviors, and the relationship of all of them with victimization and depression. Findings revealed the influence of the lack of social support on the depression of victimized students. However, peer rejection did not show influence on the levels of depression of the victims. In addition, victimization associated with internalizing characteristics showed a greater association with depression than victimization associated with an externalizing profile.
Objective: To examine the relationship between exposure to multiple forms of child abuse and neglect within the family context and peer victimization at school, accounting for the moderator effect of sex and educational level.Methods: Two thousand four hundred fifteen children and adolescents, aged 9 to 15 years, attending public schools in Mexico completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form and a modified version of the Olweus' Bully/Victim Questionnaire. We used linear regression models to assess the association of five different forms of child abuse (emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, and emotional and physical negligence) with three forms of peer victimization (direct, indirect, and cyberbullying).Results: Direct forms of child abuse within the family (i.e., emotional, physical, and sexual abuse), but not neglect, were significantly and positively associated with a risk for peer victimization. In the fully adjusted models, emotional abuse was significantly associated with the three types of peer victimization: [indirect b = 0.48, t = 6.75, p < 0.001, direct (b = 0.47, t = 4.89, p < 0.001), and cyberbullying (b = 0.85, t = 5.45, p < 0. 001)]; while physical abuse was positive and significantly associated with direct victimization (b = 0.29, t = 3.28, p < 0.001). Boys suffering from sexual abuse within the family context showed higher levels of all subtypes of peer victimization. Students attending secondary school who suffered from sexual abuse showed higher levels of indirect victimization than did students attending primary schools.Conclusion: Child abuse within the family context seems to be associated with the risk of peer victimization. Preventive strategies to address bullying and promote resilience should take family factors into account. Interventions for high-risk families might be useful to prevent child multi-victimization.
RESUMENInvestigaciones señalan que la gente suele creer que hombres y mujeres tienen rasgos de personalidad diferentes caracterizando a las mujeres con rasgos "expresivos" y a los varones como "instrumentales". Debido a lo controvertido del tema la presente investigación examina las diferencias sexuales en los rasgos instrumentales y expresivos de 634 adolescentes, con edades comprendidas entre 14 y 18 años, quienes cumplimentaron el Cuestionario de Atributos Personales (Spence, Helmreich y Stapp, 1974). Los resultados muestran diferencias entre sexos en la autoidentificación con los valores tradicionales habitualmente atribuidos al otro sexo al igual que un cambio en los estereotipos de rol sexual, siendo la superación del estereotipo sexista más clara para las chicas quienes se identifican con más rasgos instrumentales.Palabras clave: Instrumentalidad; Expresividad; Diferencias sexuales; Estereotipos de rol sexual ABSTRACT Sex differences in Spaniard adolescents' instrumental and expressive traits Extensive research has shown that people believe that men and women have different personality traits characterizing women with "expressive" traits and men with "instrumental" traits. Because of the controversial nature of this topic, this research examines sex differences in the expressive and instrumental traits of 634 adolescents aged between 14 to 18 years, who answered the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (Spence, Helmreich & Stapp, 1974). The results show sex differences in self-identification with traditional values usually attributed to the other sex, also a change in the sex role stereotypes values, being the overcoming of the sexist stereotype clearer for girls who identified themselves with more instrumental traits.
There is a large number of variables, studied in the literature, that affect the integral development of students in the educational stage, but few research analyze the effects that relative age can have on development. The aim of this study is to review and summarize the results obtained, on this subject, in recent research. The methodology used has followed the PRISMA declaration. The final sample is composed by 21 articles, which use data from 24 countries and 32 assessments. The main conclusions indicate that relatively younger children in same class groups: (a) obtain significantly lower mean scores in cognitive and motor tests, (b) have a higher repetition rate, and (c) have a less capacity of socialization. Finally, it should be noted that considering the results obtained by the research on relative age effect on child development, some authors propose to adapt educational practices to minimize these effects.
This study examines how teacher perceptions of student misbehaviour correlate with their perceptions of school climate and student self-reports, using multi-informant two-level multilevel modelling. School climate questionnaires completed by 4,055 teachers and 16,017 students (1 rd to 4 th year of compulsory secondary education from 187 schools) showed that teachers' characteristics are marginally related to perceived disruption. Fair rules and support of students' families acted as protective factors, while a lack of educational leadership was a risk factor. Furthermore, the student variable of pro-violence messages from parents acted as a moderator for leadership and rules, while perceived coercive treatment from teachers acted as a moderator for family support of teachers. La conducta disruptiva y el clima escolar: un estudio multinivel R E S U M E N Esta investigación examina en qué medida la percepción del profesorado sobre el comportamiento disruptivo correlaciona con la percepción del clima escolar y los autoinformes del alumnado, mediante una modelización multi-informante y multinivel. Los cuestionarios sobre el clima escolar, cumplimentados por 4,055 profesores y 16,017 estudiantes (de 1º a 4º curso de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria pertenecientes a 187 centros educativos), muestran que las características de los profesores se relacionan solo marginalmente con la disrupción percibida. La existencia de unas reglas justas y el apoyo de las familias de los estudiantes se mostraron como factores de protección, mientras que la ausencia de un adecuado liderazgo en el equipo directivo aparecía como factor de riesgo. Además, los mensajes que los alumnos reciben de sus padres a favor de la violencia actuaron como moderadores del liderazgo y las reglas, mientras que el trato coercitivo de los profesores que percibían los estudiantes actuó de moderador del apoyo de la familia hacia el profesorado. Palabras clave: Disrupción Adolescentes Reglas de convivencia justas Relación profesor-estudiante Relación familia-escuela Estudio multinivel ARTICLE IN PRESS 8 M. B. Martínez-Fernández et al. / Psicología Educativa (2020) xx(x) xx-xx ARTICLE IN PRESS that students sometimes or often "cause problems and interrupt class" ((Díaz-Aguado, et al., 2010).
Introduction: Bullying is a major preventable risk factor for mental disorders. Available evidence suggests school-based interventions reduce bullying prevalence rates. This study aims to test the efficacy of a web-enabled, school-based, multicomponent anti-bullying intervention to prevent school bullying and to assess its effects on mental health and quality of life.Methods and analysis: Cluster randomized controlled trial conducted in 20 publicly funded primary and secondary schools in Madrid, Spain. Schools are randomly allocated to either the intervention arm (n = 10) or conventional practices arm (n = 10). The web-enabled intervention (LINKlusive) lasts ~12 weeks and consists of three main components: (i) an online training program for teachers and parents, (ii) a web-guided educational program for students, focusing on promoting respect for diversity, empathy, and social skill development, and (iii) a web-guided, teacher-delivered, targeted intervention program for bullying situations identified based on peer-support strategies and individual intervention for those involved (i.e., bullying victims and perpetrators). The primary objective is to compare differences between peer-reported bullying victimization in the intervention and control arms at the end of the intervention. Secondary outcome measures are additional measures of bullying victimization and perpetration, mental health symptoms, self-esteem, and quality of life. A follow-up assessment is conducted 1 year after the end of the intervention. Treatment effects will be tested using multilevel mixed models, adjusting for school-, classroom-, and student-related covariates. Considering the increased bullying rates in children with special educational needs, a specific subgroup analysis will test the efficacy of the intervention on bullying prevalence, mental health, and quality of life in this particularly vulnerable population.Ethics and Dissemination: The Deontology Commission of the School of Psychology, Universidad Complutense in Madrid, Spain reviewed the study protocol and granted ethical approval on 21st January 2019. The results of the trial will be disseminated in relevant peer-reviewed journals and at conferences in the field.Trial Registration Number: ISRCTN15719015.
Handwriting is a complex activity that involves continuous interaction between lower-level handwriting and motor skills and higher-order cognitive processes. It is important to allocate mental resources to these high-order processes since these processes place a great demand on cognitive capacity. This is possible when lower-level skills such as transcription are effortlessness and fluent. Given that fluency is a value in virtually all areas of academic learning, schools should provide instructional activities to promote writing fluency from the first stages of learning to write. In an effort to determine if teaching handwriting enhances writing fluency, we conducted a systematic and meta-analytic review of the writing fluency intervention literature. We selected 31 studies: 21 true and quasi-experimental studies, 4 single-group design, 3 single-subject design, and 3 non-experimental studies, conducted with K-6 students in a regular school setting. A total of 2,030 students participated in these studies. When compared to no instruction or non-handwriting instructional conditions, teaching different handwriting intervention programs resulted in statistically significant greater writing fluency (ES = 0.64). Moreover, three specific handwriting interventions yielded statistically significant results in improving writing fluency, when compared to other handwriting interventions or to typical handwriting instruction conditions: handwriting focused on training timed transcription skills (ES = 0.49), multicomponent handwriting treatments (ES = 0.40), and performance feedback (ES = 0.36). There were not enough data to calculate the impact of sensory-motor and self-regulated strategy handwriting interventions on writing fluency. The significance of these findings for implementing and differentiating handwriting fluency instruction and guiding future research will be discussed.
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