INTRODUÇÃO: A sinergia entre a tuberculose e o vírus da imunodeficiência humana é responsável pelo aumento da morbi-mortalidade dos pacientes com AIDS. OBJETIVO: Delinear o perfil de pacientes com tuberculose e AIDS na cidade de Rio Grande (RS) relacionando dados demográficos, clínicos e laboratoriais. MÉTODO: A amostra foi constituída por todos os casos de tuberculose confirmados pelo isolamento de Mycobacterium tuberculosis ocorridos no Serviço de AIDS do Hospital Universitário/FURG entre setembro de 1997 e dezembro de 2000, em 31 pacientes reportados como casos definidos de AIDS. Foram examinados 33 materiais clínicos pulmonares e extrapulmonares através da cultura pelo método de Ogawa-Kudoh e da baciloscopia pelo Kinyoun. A identificação de M. tuberculosis foi feita pelos métodos fenotípicos usuais. Para determinação da resistência das cepas isoladas foi empregado o método das proporções. RESULTADOS: A média de idade foi de 33,8 ± 9,9 anos, com uma relação homem/mulher de 2,87:1. Eram brancos 80,7% dos pacientes. Todos os pacientes apresentavam manifestações clínicas gerais e/ou específicas de tuberculose no momento da suspeita diagnóstica. Em 20 deles foram constatados fatores de risco: uso de droga endovenosa, alcoolismo, desnutrição, encarceramento. A doença pulmonar ocorreu em 19 casos, a extrapulmonar em 10 e a associada em 2 deles. Entre aqueles com a forma extrapulmonar, predominou o comprometimento ganglionar. As 33 cepas isoladas foram identificadas como M. tuberculosis, e 28 mostraram sensibilidade à isoniazida e à rifampicina. CONCLUSÃO: A tuberculose nos pacientes com AIDS apresentou-se com manifestações clínicas variáveis, comprometendo homens e mulheres em condições sociais desfavoráveis, em plena fase produtiva de suas vidas.
Tuberculosis is an increasingly important public health problem in developing countries. We studied 111 tuberculosis patients confirmed by mycobacteria isolation between 1998 and 2000 in Rio Grande, in south Brazil. One-hundred-thirteen pulmonary and extrapulmonary clinical materials were examined through culture by the Ogawa-Kudoh method and through smear examination by the Ziehl-Nielsen or Kinyoun methods. The identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was done through the usual phenotypical methods. The proportion method (indirect technique) was used to determine the resistance of isolates. The man/woman ratio was 2.6:1, 75% were white, and the group had a mean age of 39.7±12.7. Risk factors were present in 38.7% (34 men and 9 women, p=0.2), with a mean age of 35 (p=0.002); infection by HIV was the most frequent (28.8%), followed by alcoholism (16.2%) and injected drug use (15.3%). The frequency of M. tuberculosis isolates was 99.1%. Pulmonary disease occurred in 88.3% of the cases, extrapulmonary in 9.9% and 1.8% in both. There was an association between extrapulmonary tuberculosis and the presence of risk factors (p=0.0001). Resistance to isoniazid was found in 4% of the isolates and to isoniazid and rifampin in 2%, all being patients with some risk factors. The profile of tuberculosis in the population of this study followed the pattern described for developing regions of the world.
Tuberculosis remains one of the major causes of mortality worldwide. The early detection of new cases is an important goal in the program of tuberculosis control. Several methodologies for rapid and accurate laboratorial diagnosis have been developed, however, some of these techniques are expensive or cumbersome, making their implementation in low-income regions unfeasible. In this study, the thin layer culture method was compared with conventional culture method and it was observed that it provides earlier results and a presumptive species identification, being adequate alternative method for rapid laboratory diagnosis. The diagnosis is an important tool for TB control because it allows establishing the correct treatment and the required further control practices to break down the transmission chain of the bacilli. Conventional laboratorial methods for diagnosis of TB are sputum microscopy and culture in Lowenstein-Jensen or Ogawa medium (2,3). However, these methodologies present low sensitivity or take a long time to achieve results. Even though there are several new methodologies with higher specificity and/ or sensitivity able to provide earlier results than the conventional methodologies, the implementation of these alternative methods in the routine of the majority of the laboratories around the world is very difficult because of their high cost and complexity (4-6).The development of new, inexpensive, and more sensitive methodologies for TB diagnosis able to provide earlier results than the conventional methods is a priority for TB control.
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