This paper presents a non-intrusive approach for monitoring driver drowsiness using the fusion of several optimized indicators based on driver physical and driving performance measures, obtained from ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistant Systems) in simulated conditions. The paper is focused on real-time drowsiness detection technology rather than on long-term sleep/awake regulation prediction technology. We have developed our own vision system in order to obtain robust and optimized driver indicators able to be used in simulators and future real environments. These indicators are principally based on driver physical and driving performance skills. The fusion of several indicators, proposed in the literature, is evaluated using a neural network and a stochastic optimization method to obtain the best combination. We propose a new method for ground-truth generation based on a supervised Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS). An extensive evaluation of indicators, derived from trials over a third generation simulator with several test subjects during different driving sessions, was performed. The main conclusions about the performance of single indicators and the best combinations of them are included, as well as the future works derived from this study.
This paper presents a non-intrusive approach for monitoring driver drowsiness, based on driver and driving data fusion. The Percentage of Eye Closure (PERCLOS) is used to estimate the driver's state. The PERCLOS is computed on real time using a stereo vision-based system. The driving information used is the lateral position, the steering wheel angle and the heading error provided by the CAN bus. These three signals have been studied in the time and frequency domain. A multilayer perceptron neural network has been trained to fetch an optimal performance score. This system was installed in a naturalistic driving simulator. For evaluation purposes, several experiments were designed by psychologists and carried out with professional drivers. As ground truth, subjective experts' manual annotation of the driver video sequences and driving signals was used. A detection rate of 70% using individual indicators was raised up to 94% with the combination of indicators. An explanation about these results and some conclusion are presented.
We present a method to monitor driver distraction based on a stereo camera to estimate the face pose and gaze of a driver in real-time. A coarse eye direction is composed with the face pose estimation to obtain the gaze and driver's fixation area in the scene, a parameter which gives much information about the distraction pattern of the driver. The system does not require any subject-specific calibration, it is robust to fast and wide head rotations and works in low lighting conditions.The system provides some consistent statistics which help psychologists to assess the driver distraction patterns under influence of different In-Vehicle Information Systems (IVIS). These statistics are objective, as the drivers are not required to report their own distraction states. The proposed gaze fixation system has been tested on a set of challenging driving experiments directed by a team of psychologists in a naturalistic driving simulator. This simulator mimics conditions present in real driving, including weather changes, manoeuvring and distractions due to IVIS. Professional drivers participated in the tests.
Abstract-Collision avoidance is one of the most difficult and challenging automatic driving operations in the domain of intelligent vehicles. In emergency situations, human drivers are more likely to brake than to steer, although the optimal maneuver would, more frequently, be steering alone. This statement suggests the use of automatic steering as a promising solution to avoid accidents in the future. The objective of this paper is to provide a collision avoidance system (CAS) for autonomous vehicles, focusing on pedestrian collision avoidance. The detection component involves a stereo-vision-based pedestrian detection system that provides suitable measurements of the time to collision. The collision avoidance maneuver is performed using fuzzy controllers for the actuators that mimic human behavior and reactions, along with a high-precision Global Positioning System (GPS), which provides the information needed for the autonomous navigation. The proposed system is evaluated in two steps. First, drivers' behavior and sensor accuracy are studied in experiments carried out by manual driving. This study will be used to define the parameters of the second step, in which automatic pedestrian collision avoidance is carried out at speeds of up to 30 km/h. The performed field tests provided encouraging results and proved the viability of the proposed approach.
The need to accurately estimate the speed of road vehicles is becoming increasingly important for at least two main reasons. First, the number of speed cameras installed worldwide has been growing in recent years, as the introduction and enforcement of appropriate speed limits are considered one of the most effective means to increase the road safety. Second, traffic monitoring and forecasting in road networks plays a fundamental role to enhance traffic, emissions and energy consumption in smart cities, being the speed of the vehicles one of the most relevant parameters of the traffic state. Among the technologies available for the accurate detection of vehicle speed, the use of vision‐based systems brings great challenges to be solved, but also great potential advantages, such as the drastic reduction of costs due to the absence of expensive range sensors, and the possibility of identifying vehicles accurately. This paper provides a review of vision‐based vehicle speed estimation. The terminology and the application domains are described and a complete taxonomy of a large selection of works that categorizes all stages involved is proposed. An overview of performance evaluation metrics and available datasets is provided. Finally, current limitations and future directions are discussed.
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