Background: Sponges are champion of bioactive producers because of the variety of products that have been found from them. Most bioactive compounds extracted from sponges were classified into antibiotic, antiviral, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory. Tow marine sponge species were collected during winter 2016 from Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea, Egypt viz., Callyspongia crassa and Callyspongia siphonella. The collected sponge species belong to family Callyspongiidae. The sponge samples were extracted by ethanol and investigated as a promising source of natural products which can be used as antitumor, antiviral, and antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory agents. Results: Results revealed that the crude extract of C. siphonella showed high antitumor activity with value of 5.57 and 1.39 μg/ml as IC50 against colon cancer (caco-2) and breast cancer (Mcf-7) on cell line, respectively. Also the C. crassa extract showed high cytotoxic effect to Vero cell with HAV (hepatitis A virus), which exhibits that MIC was 9.765 μg/ml, the most effective extract was of C. crassa against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. Also, ethanolic crude of C. siphonella showed positive antibacterial activity against P. aueroginosa. Indeed, there much other extracts exhibited no antibacterial activities, especially all extracts against Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio damsela. The C. crassa extract conducted an antioxidant activity in corresponding to ascorbic acid standard with value of 671 μg/ml as IC50. There was only one crude extract that had anti-inflammatory activity; it was of C. crassa (61.47%). Conclusions: The present investigation confirmed that the crude extract of C. siphonella conducted to promising antitumor agent against colon and breast cancer, while the crude extract of C. crassa conducted to promising anti-inflammatory and antiviral agents. In summary, the marine sponges are an indispensable, chemodiverse, biodiverse, and rich source of natural products and secondary metabolites with potent pharmacological effects. The studies should be interested with spongederived bioactive compounds as a promising strategy that deserves further attention in future investigations in order to address the limitations regarding sustainable supply of marine drugs.
Many marine organisms have been used as sources of medicines and primary products (Hasaballah and El-Naggar 2017). The Red Sea and its two gulfs (Aqaba and Suez) is one of the most important storehouses of global marine biodiversity (El-Naggar et al., 2017 and Mona et al., 2019).Aquatic organisms are considered as a source for huge numbers of bioactive compounds and secondary metabolites that attract the attentions of biologists, pharmacist and chemists as a result of their potential activities as anticancer, antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-fungal and so on (El-Naggar and Hasaballah, 2018; Elnagar et al., 2018). They are facing many of environmental challenges such as competition on space and nutrition, predation and self-defense etc., all these challenges stimulate aquatic organisms to produce secondary metabolites to cope it (El-Damhougy et al., 2017a; Ibrahim et al.,
Bioactive constituents of numerous marine organisms have been investigated recently for their preclinical and clinical anticancer activity. Three marine organisms: black-spotted sea cucumber: Pearsonothuria graeffei (Pg), lollyfish: Holothuria atra (Ha), and sea hare: Aplysia dactylomela (Ad), were collected during winter 2019 from Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea, Egypt, and macerated with ethanol into three different extracts: PgE, HaE, and AdE, where each was in vitro assessed for its antiproliferative and proapoptotic properties on HepG2, HCT-116, and MCF-7 cancer cells. PgE dose-dependently inhibited the growth of HepG2, HCT-116, and MCF-7 cells within IC50 values 16.22, 13.34, and 18.09 μg/mL, respectively, while the IC50 values for the antiproliferative activity of HaE were 12.48, 10.45, and 10.36 μg/mL, respectively, and the IC50 values of AdE were 6.51, 5.33, and 6.87 μg/mL, respectively. All extracts were found to induce G0/G1 cell cycle arrest for HepG2 cells side by side with their inhibition of CDK2 on all three cell lines while all extracts were also showed to induce apoptosis in HepG2 cell line at pre-G1 phase supplemented by their anticancer activity via proapoptotic protein Bax, caspase-3, and cleavage PARP increase, and antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 downturn. Moreover, necrosis has been relatively noticed in HepG2 cell line as an additional anticancer activity for each extract. Our data introduced three ethanolic marine extracts as natural chemotherapeutic agents to be further developed for cancer control.
Crude extracts of marine sponges, Negombata magnifica and Callyspongia siphonella were tested for their antimicrobial activity besides larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal and other biological effects against the filarial vector Culex pipiens. Three sub-lethal concentrations ranging as 8.4, 28.4 and 47.6 ppm for N. magnifica and 44.5, 327.4 and 610.3 ppm for C. siphonella were used. The two marine sponges used in this study were collected from reefs by SCUBA diving. Spicules were prepared by dissolving the soft tissue of small pieces of sponge in sodium hypochlorite and washed with distilled water and ethanol. The extracts were tested for their antimicrobial activity; in addition, the biological activities of the three sub-lethal concentrations used were evaluated against laboratory reared Cx. pipiens mosquito. The results obtained showed interesting antifungal activity against fungal strains tested. N. magnifica extract showed quite promising broad-spectrum antibacterial activity due to its capacity to inhibit the growth of almost bacterial strains tested. Based on LC 50 values, the toxicity of N. magnifica extract (47.6 ppm) was higher than that of C. siphonella (610.3 ppm). Mean larval and 2 pupal durations of mosquitoes treated with N. magnifica extract were significantly (P<0.05) prolonged at higher sub-lethal concentrations; meanwhile, C. siphonella showed non-significant (P>0.05) prolongation. The N. magnifica extract was found to be more effective against the adult emergence than C. siphonella. There was a pronounced effect of the tested extracts on the number of eggs laid per female and this effect was concentration dependent, the fecundity of mosquitoes treated with N. magnifica extract was significantly (P<0.05) decreased to 86.7±5.8 eggs/♀, compared to 150±8.7 eggs/♀ for the control group, while it was 116.7±5.8 eggs/♀ for C. siphonella extract, vs. the control group. Vitellogenin synthesis and ovarian development of Cx. pipiens females were highly affected by tested extracts. Six protein bands with high molecular weights (175-90 KDa), which believed to be vitellogenin, were detected in the control group, while this number reduced to two bands in ovaries of N. magnifica and C. siphonella-treated females. Also, N. magnifica extract induced concentration dependent repellent activity against tested females mosquitoes than C. siphonella extract. These promising results in relation with antifungal and antibacterial activities open the way for complementary investigation in order to purify and identify active molecules. The present investigations have helped to focus on some bioactive substances isolated from marine resources; these molecules, which possess antimicrobial and insecticidal activities, could be used as insecticidal agents.
Healthy, Coral reefs are the most spectacular, diverse and economically valuable marine ecosystems on the planet, Complex and productive, coral reefs are extremely important for biodiversity, providing a home to 35,000-60,000 species of plants and animals (over 25% of all marine life), many of which are undescribed by science. They are also vital for people and business. They provide nurseries for many species of commercially important fish, protection of coastal areas from storm waves. They are providing hundreds of billions of dollars in food, jobs and significant attraction for the tourism industry. Yet coral reef ecosystems have undergone phase shifts to alternate, degraded assemblages because of the combined human activates of unsustainable overfishing, intensive tourism, urbanization, sedimentation, declining water quality, pollution and primarily from the direct and indirect impacts of climate change. Most coral ecologists confirmed that coral reef degradation has increased dramatically during the last three decades due to enhanced anthropogenic disturbances and their interaction with natural stressors. So, it is necessary to recognize the threats facing coral reefs from anthropogenic activities and try to minimize and mitigate these impacts.
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