Integrins mediate cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix and transmit signals within the cell that stimulate cell spreading, retraction, migration, and proliferation. The mechanism of integrin outside-in signaling has been unclear. We found that the heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein), Gα13, directly bound to the integrin β3 cytoplasmic domain, and that Gα13-integrin interaction was promoted by ligand binding to the integrin αIIbβ3 and by guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-loading of Gα13. Interference of Gα13 expression or a myristoylated fragment of Gα13 that inhibited interaction of αIIbβ3 with Gα13 diminished activation of protein kinase c-Src and stimulated the small GTPase RhoA, consequently inhibiting cell spreading and accelerating cell retraction. We conclude that integrins are non-canonical Gα13-coupled receptors that provide a mechanism for dynamic regulation of RhoA.
Developing novel approaches to reverse the drug resistance of tumor-repopulating cells (TRCs) or stem cell-like cancer cells is an urgent clinical need to improve outcomes of cancer patients. Here we show an innovative approach that reverses drug resistance of TRCs using tumor cell-derived microparticles (T-MPs) containing anti-tumor drugs. TRCs, by virtue of being more deformable than differentiated cancer cells, preferentially take up T-MPs that release anti-tumor drugs after entering cells, which in turn lead to death of TRCs. The underlying mechanisms include interfering with drug efflux and promoting nuclear entry of the drugs. Our findings demonstrate the importance of tumor cell softness in uptake of T-MPs and effectiveness of a novel approach in reversing drug resistance of TRCs with promising clinical applications.
Macroautophagy/autophagy has profound implications for aging. However, the true features of autophagy in the progression of aging remain to be clarified. In the present study, we explored the status of autophagic flux during the development of cell senescence induced by oxidative stress. In this system, although autophagic structures increased, the degradation of SQSTM1/p62 protein, the yellow puncta of mRFP-GFP-LC3 fluorescence and the activity of lysosomal proteolytic enzymes all decreased in senescent cells, indicating impaired autophagic flux with lysosomal dysfunction. The influence of autophagy activity on senescence development was confirmed by both positive and negative autophagy modulators; and MTOR-dependent autophagy activators, rapamycin and PP242, efficiently suppressed cellular senescence through a mechanism relevant to restoring autophagic flux. By time-phased treatment of cells with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC), the mitochondria uncoupler carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP) and ambroxol, a reagent with the effect of enhancing lysosomal enzyme maturation, we found that mitochondrial dysfunction plays an initiating role, while lysosomal dysfunction is more directly responsible for autophagy impairment and senescence. Interestingly, the effect of rapamycin on autophagy flux is linked to its role in functional revitalization of both mitochondrial and lysosomal functions. Together, this study demonstrates that autophagy impairment is crucial for oxidative stressinduced cell senescence, thus restoring autophagy activity could be a promising way to retard senescence.
An approach based on mosquitoes carrying a conditional dominant lethal gene (release of insects carrying a dominant lethal, RIDL) is being developed to control the transmission of dengue viruses by vector population suppression. A transgenic strain, designated OX3604C, of the major dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, was engineered to have a repressible female-specific flightless phenotype. This strain circumvents the need for radiation-induced sterilization, allows genetic sexing resulting in male-only releases, and permits the release of eggs instead of adult mosquitoes. OX3604C males introduced weekly into large laboratory cages containing stable target mosquito populations at initial ratios of 8.5-10∶1 OX3604C∶target eliminated the populations within 10-20 weeks. These data support the further testing of this strain in contained or confined field trials to evaluate mating competitiveness and environmental and other effects. Successful completion of the field trials should facilitate incorporation of this approach into areawide dengue control or elimination efforts as a component of an integrated vector management strategy.genetic control | sterile insect technique | cage trial
Summary AMPK activation is beneficial for cellular homeostasis and senescence prevention. However, the molecular events involved in AMPK activation are not well defined. In this study, we addressed the mechanism underlying the protective effect of AMPK on oxidative stress‐induced senescence. The results showed that AMPK was inactivated in senescent cells. However, pharmacological activation of AMPK by metformin and berberine significantly prevented the development of senescence and, accordingly, inhibition of AMPK by Compound C was accelerated. Importantly, AMPK activation prevented hydrogen peroxide‐induced impairment of the autophagic flux in senescent cells, evidenced by the decreased p62 degradation, GFP‐RFP‐LC3 cancellation, and activity of lysosomal hydrolases. We also found that AMPK activation restored the NAD + levels in the senescent cells via a mechanism involving mostly the salvage pathway for NAD + synthesis. In addition, the mechanistic relationship of autophagic flux and NAD + synthesis and the involvement of mTOR and Sirt1 activities were assessed. In summary, our results suggest that AMPK prevents oxidative stress‐induced senescence by improving autophagic flux and NAD + homeostasis. This study provides a new insight for exploring the mechanisms of aging, autophagy and NAD + homeostasis, and it is also valuable in the development of innovative strategies to combat aging.
Integrin-dependent cell spreading and retraction are required for cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation, and thus are important in thrombosis, wound repair, immunity, and cancer development. It remains unknown how integrin outside-in signaling induces and controls these two opposite processes. This study reveals that calpain cleavage of integrin β3 at Tyr759 switches the functional outcome of integrin signaling from cell spreading to retraction. Expression of a calpain cleavage–resistant β3 mutant in Chinese hamster ovary cells causes defective clot retraction and RhoA-mediated retraction signaling but enhances cell spreading. Conversely, a calpain-cleaved form of β3 fails to mediate cell spreading, but inhibition of the RhoA signaling pathway corrects this defect. Importantly, the calpain-cleaved β3 fails to bind c-Src, which is required for integrin-induced cell spreading, and this requirement of β3-associated c-Src results from its inhibition of RhoA-dependent contractile signals. Thus, calpain cleavage of β3 at Tyr759 relieves c-Src–mediated RhoA inhibition, activating the RhoA pathway that confines cell spreading and causes cell retraction.
Malaria infection continues to be a major problem in many parts of the world including the Americas, Asia, and Africa. Insecticide-treated bed-nets have shown to reduce malaria cases by 50%; however, improper handling and human behavior can diminish their effectiveness. We formulate and analyze a mathematical model that considers the transmission dynamics of malaria infection in mosquito and human populations and investigate the impact of bed-nets on its control. The effective reproduction number is derived and existence of backward bifurcation is presented. The backward bifurcation implies that the reduction of scriptR below unity alone is not enough to eradicate malaria, except when the initial cases of infection in both populations are small. Our analysis demonstrate that bed-net usage has a positive impact in reducing the reproduction number scriptR. The results show that if 75% of the population were to use bed-nets, malaria could be eliminated. We conclude that more data on the impact of human and mosquito behavior on malaria spread is needed to develop more realistic models and better predictions.
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